This paper explores Richard Tuck's account of Grotius as the key innovator in the history that leads to the invention both of the free individual, protective of his or her rights, and of the modern liberal state, respectful of individuals' rights. Contextualism as a method for dealing with texts is discussed by way of a recent interview given by Tuck's teacher, Quentin Skinner. The attempt is made to see contextualism in context.
Even before the United States of America (US) was founded, corporal punishment was a well-entrenched disciplinary practice in schools and many colonial homes. However, there is also evidence indicating that concern about the hitting of children dates back to the colonial period. This chapter provides a brief history of corporal punishment in schools and homes, and a description of the efforts to end the punitive behaviour, with attention focused on recent efforts in the anti-corporal punishment movement in the country. Over the past 50 years, the movement has advanced based on the work of three types of agents of social change: scholars and professionals, activists and organisations, and elected officials and legislation. The chapter ends with an assessment of the current state of the movement to end corporal punishment in the US.