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In: Biblical Hebrew in Context
In: The Land of Israel in Bible, History, and Theology
In: Exile and Suffering
In: Tradition and Innovation in Biblical Interpretation
In: Playing with Leviathan: Interpretation and Reception of Monsters from the Biblical World
Upright Behaviour as Grounds for Deliverance in Psalms 7, 17, 18, 26, and 44
Author: Gert Kwakkel
Interpretation of the psalmist's assertions about their upright behaviour towards God or men in Psalms 7, 17, 18, 26, and 44.
After a short introduction, the study presents a detailed analysis of Psalms 7, 17, 18, 26, and 44 (text, philology, exegesis). It evaluates previous views of the intention and setting of the psalmist’s claims regarding their upright behaviour, such as Beyerlin’s theory that the psalms involved were originally used as prayers in a cultic trial by ordeal. It presents a new hypothesis with respect to the purport of the claims.
Its subject matter and method make this study particularly useful for all those studying the Hebrew Psalms. Furthermore, it deals with an important topic of the anthropology and theology of the Old Testament, viz. human righteousness towards God.
Author: Gert Kwakkel


Building on Elliger’s and Mazor’s analyses of the structure of Hos 5:1-2, this study discusses several problematic aspects of Hos 5:1-2, such as the meaning of בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל and מִשְׁפָּט in 1a and מוּסָר in 2b. It accepts the emended reading שַׁחַת הַשִּׁטִּים “the pit of Shittim” in verse 2a, but also puts this into perspective. With the benefit of data from the context, it demonstrates that the text makes use of paronomasia, deliberate ambiguities and shifts of meaning as parts of its rhetorical strategy.

In: Vetus Testamentum
In: Psalms and Prayers
Essays in Semitics and Old Testament Texts in Honour of Professor Jan P. Lettinga
For half a century Jan P. Lettinga (1921), Professor emeritus of Semitic Languages at the Theological University Kampen (Broederweg), greatly influenced the teaching of Biblical Hebrew in the Faculties of Theology, Religious Studies and Semitic Languages in the Netherlands and Belgium by his widely used grammar. This volume honours his legacy and reputation as a Semitist. Lettinga always asked how a historical approach of the Semitic languages and literature would contribute to their understanding, and how this elucidates our reading of the Hebrew Scriptures. Biblical Hebrew in Context applies this approach to issues reflecting the full breadth of Lettinga’s interests: Mesopotamian and Biblical Law, the history, grammar and teaching of Hebrew and Aramaic, and the translation and interpretation of Ugaritic and Old Testament texts.