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In: Re-examining the Cold War: U.S.-China Diplomacy, 1954–1973
In: Re-examining the Cold War: U.S.-China Diplomacy, 1954–1973
In: Normalization of U.S.-China Relations
Authors: and

Since the late 1990s the Chinese government has implemented two key policies for the development of higher education. The first was launching Project 985, with the purpose of seeking excellence through creating internationally competitive universities. The second was a radical move to a mass system of higher education. In this context, China’s top universities have faced dual missions, each with their challenges: playing key roles in the revolutionary expansion process on the one hand and closing the gap between them and top universities around the world through the implementation of Project 985, on the other. It is thus important to know about how these institutions have transformed themselves for excellence through the implementation of these policies. With the three cases of Peking, Nanjing and Xiamen Universities, this paper aims to examine each institutional response and the broad changes that have come about in these top Chinese comprehensive universities. It looks especially at the divergent trajectories these institutions have followed in balancing their elite and mass education functions, their global, national and local missions, the pursuit of excellence alongside of a commitment to equity, efforts at curricular comprehensivization while preserving unique historical strengths, and finally globalization and localization. From two higher education frameworks, one based on epistemological considerations and the other on political philosophy, that are equally important in light of China’s traditions, the paper concludes that Chinese universities will continuously but selectively respond to the national expansion policy with various institutional models of seeking excellence that enable them to contribute to Chinese society and the global community in the future.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
Authors: and

The combination of a high growth rate and low information has been observed since the late 1990s in the Chinese economy. Should the fact be considered as a result of greatly improved supply capability or should the fact reflect the improvement in the government’s aggregate demand management? In this paper, we try to assess the role of aggregate demand and supply shocks in China’s macroeconomic fluctuation. We use a bivariate structural VAR model to investigate macroeconomic dynamics for China within the aggregate-demand and aggregate-supply framework, using the quarterly data in the period of 1996Q1–2005Q4. Our principal findings are following: (1) China’s high growth shall be associated more with greatly improved supply capability, especially after its WTO entrance. The expansionary aggregate demand policies may have limited effects to raise the growth rate in the post-1996 in China. This result suggests that we need a more pro-growth policy stance in order to maintain a high and stable growth. (2) The low inflation in that period is driven primarily by weak aggregate demand rather than supply factors.

In: Frontiers of Economics in China
Authors: and

The Chinese economy has been significantly affected by the global financial crisis. Moreover, a rapid decline in growth rate can be mainly attributed to the expenditure structural unbalance, which takes root in its uneven national income distribution. Furthermore, the uneven national income distribution is the result of the extensive pattern of China’s economic growth in the open economy. The extensive pattern is characterized by labor-intensive export-led growth model. The need for high growth rate and fiscal revenue maximization forces local governments to compete against each other to get FDI by undervaluing production factors, resulting in the extensive pattern of growth. From an institutional point of view, uneven social power between government and public, central government and local governments, capital owners and labor force, and so on, can be viewed as the main reason for the extensive pattern of growth and uneven national income distribution. Low wage, which has been the main factor for the comparative advantage, now turns out to be barriers to boosting domestic demand. The technology lag in the manufacturing industry also has a significant negative impact on improving labor productivity and increasing per capita income. Hence, to deal with the recession, not only quantitative easing, but also structural adjustments are needed.

In: Frontiers of Economics in China

Two new species of genus Pheronemoides are described in this study. The Specimens were collected from the South China sea and the Caroline seamount in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Pheronemoides crustiformis sp. nov. differs from its congeners in exhibiting large microamphidiscs, whip-like and slightly bent microuncinates and small spiny microdiactins. Pheronemoides curvipentactin sp. nov. possesses special pentactine atrialia with round terminal or tapering terminal curved pinular rays and crooked pentactins, making it easily distinguishable from its congeners. Partial sequences of the 28S rDNA and 16S rDNA genes were also amplified to confirm the family assignment of the two new species and to explore the systematic status of Pheronemoides.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

Social donation is a means for individuals, government organizations, and non-government organizations (NGOs) to provide public products and services for society. Seeking social donation is vital in the improvement of the university. This paper probes into the relationship between social donation and university development by comparing social donation levels and practices in China with those in the U.S. The main reasons why social donations in Chinese universities are relatively low are as follows: (1) independent NGOs have not been formed; (2) the system and mechanism of social donation are not perfect, and (3) many restricting factors of social culture still exist in China.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
In: Normalization of U.S.-China Relations