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In The Hittite Middle Voice Guglielmo Inglese offers a new treatment of the middle voice in Hittite. The book features two main parts. In the first part, the author provides an updated synchronic description of the Hittite middle based on the existing typology of voice systems and valency changing operations. Moreover, based on a careful analysis of a chronologically ordered corpus of original Hittite texts, the book offers the first ever diachronic account of the Hittite middle. As Inglese argues, the findings of this book greatly enrich our general knowledge of the diachronic typology of middle voice systems. The second part of the book features a thorough description of more than 100 Hittite verbs in original texts.
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice
In: The Hittite Middle Voice

Abstract

The Ancient Greek particle atár has been described as a connective device that encodes either an adversative or a progressive relation between sentences. The purpose of this paper is to revise the description of this particle by framing its analysis within a consistent and theoretically up-to-date model of clause linkage and discourse structure. Starting from previous findings on the function of atár in Homer, I undertake a corpus analysis of atár in Euripides and Aristophanes. This analysis reveals differences in usage at different stages of the language that have been previously neglected. Whereas in Homer, atár largely behaves as a connective and encodes a semantic relation of oppositive contrast between sentences, in later texts it rather behaves as a discourse marker and contributes to the management of both thematic continuity and interactional practices. These differences point to a specific diachronic path of grammaticalization that accounts for the changes undergone by atár.

In: Journal of Greek Linguistics

Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) tree and orchards efficiency has been poorly studied, in terms of relation between orchard lay out, light interception, and cropping efficiency. Apparently, there is no other way to increase orchard production than increasing the number either of trees ha-1 or fertile shoots tree-1, considering that a fruit count higher than 6-7 cladode-1 reduces fruit harvest size. The first option requires a reduction of unit tree size and canopy volume. The second option implies the use of large trees that often reduce their efficiency 12-15 years after planting. In 15-year-old OFI trees spaced 6 5 m apart trained to a globe and 2.5-3.0 m high, stem area index (SAI) calculated on the ground surface area covered by the tree was 2.9 and 6.5, respectively, for most active 1- and 2-year-old cladodes and whole canopy surface area. SAI orchard (cladode surface area/ground surface area allotted to the tree) values were slightly lower: 1.8 and 3.9. The proportion of annual dry matter allocated to the fruit component (harvest index = HI) was 34% and 46%, respectively, for the spring flush and for the summer flush that results from the removal of the spring flush of flowers and cladodes (SFR). However, for 8-year-old OFI trees grown at a density of 333 trees ha-1 the calculated HI was about 25%.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences