A law guide to the Nordic countries has not previously existed. While there are numerous similarities among the four legal systems, minor differences could have harmful and sometimes costly ramifications for a business operation in the region.
This book deals with all the practical aspects relevant to formation, running and closing of operations, labour law, tax law and most other aspects of the legal environment.
The authors, lawyers from four law firms in the Nordic countries, have found it important to create a legal guide for business operations in the region. The guide has been undertaken by a substantial number of lawyers in the four countries whose work has made it possible to assemble the facts rendered herein. It is hoped that it will be an important tool to business managers, in-house counsel, auditors, consultants and lawyers working for enterprises operating in the region.
Descriptions or redescriptions of adults and immature stages of the following Nepticulidae are presented: Stigmella pyrivora n.sp., S. auromargiinella (Richardson, 1890), S. pyrellicola (Klimesch), S. cf. rhamnella (Herrich-Schäffer), Trifurcula erythrogenella de Joannis, and T. minimella Rebel. In addition, descriptions of male adults of Stigmella pyrellicola (Klimesch), a Trifurcula sp. and redescriptions of adults of T. rosmarinella (Chrétien) are given.
Some of the larval characters of systematic importance in the Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) have been studied in 41 Stigmella spp. and 15 Trifurcula spp.; the head capsule, the chaetotaxy and the labial palpi have been illustrated.
In chapter 17 of his book, Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory, Ian Hacking makes the disquieting claim that “perhaps we should best think of past human actions as being to a certain extent indeterminate.”<xref ref-type="fn" rid="FN1">1</xref> Against what may appear like the self-evident conception of the past as fixed and unalterable, Hacking suggests that when it comes to human conduct and experience, there are reasons to adopt a more flexible view. This suggestion has caused lively debate, in the journal History of the Human Sciences and elsewhere.<xref ref-type="fn" rid="FN2">2</xref> Central to this debate is the question of what it means to use a recently invented vocabulary to redescribe past human affairs. In particular, it is asked: How do the linguistic, cultural and social differences between past and present matter to the possibility of such a redescription’s being true? We who do research in the humanities and social sciences often make retroactive redescriptions of precisely this sort. Hence, the debate is clearly of some general importance for how to conceive the goals and methods of our inquiries. My overall aim in this paper is to clarify what we may learn from the clash between Hacking and his critics.
This chapter deals with political mobilisation and participation in social media. The main focus is on the importance of Internet-mediated social networks in providing a ‘media filter’, functioning as a kind of collective gatekeeper to spread news and information perceived as important, in contrast to the image of the single individual media consumer faced with an insurmountable mass of information. I argue that by investing one’s personal ethos in spreading information and encourage peers in the personal social network to political participation, vital news and calls for action spread quickly. A form of viral politics ensues that, in concordance with traditional types of mediation and formation of political opinion, might provide a basis for a new type of political elite in competitive democracy. Drawing on earlier research concerning the effect of social capital created by weak ties on political participation, I argue that social networks organised online provide a new type of post-organisational weak ties, functioning as maintained social capital building institutions, encouraging to and organising actions of civic engagement. I also argue that, contrary to the common belief that various forms of Internet-mediated political mobilisation constitute a more inclusive, emancipatory and egalitarian politics, it could also be the case that the growing importance of viral politics reinforces the traditional inequality in political participation and influence in society. More specifically, a case is made for the need for more thorough conceptualisation of new modes of participation: spontaneous, individualised, ‘unorganised’ forms of action. Two concepts, ‘temporal elites’ and ‘viral politics’ are developed for describing how social network membership and density determine how people are recruited to political campaigns. The theoretical assumptions are further illustrated by the preliminary empirical findings of an ongoing study of Swedish Facebook users and their attitudes and behaviour concerning political participation in social media.