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  • Author or Editor: Gytis Piličiauskas x
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Abstract

Until now, Šventoji in northwest Lithuania was considered the most northern site of the Neolithic Globular Amphora Culture (hereafter GAC; ca. 3400–2500 cal BC) in Europe. Recently, however, ceramics typologically resembling GAC ware were identified among the materials from the multi-period sites of Abora 1 and Iča in Latvia and further to the north from Tamula in southeast Estonia. Here we present the multi-disciplinary analyses of these ceramics, including their morphology, function and chronology, to ascertain whether they could represent sporadic migrations of GAC groups into the region or exchange and increasing social contacts with the indigenous hunter-gatherers during the period from ca. 3000–2600 cal BC. Overall, our results align with previous studies showing that GAC groups in the Eastern Baltic possibly reorientated their economy from animal husbandry towards fishing, as recently evidenced by the composition of zooarchaeological assemblages, and the organic residue analysis of ceramic vessels, which markedly differ from the GAC communities of Central Europe. Indeed, in several coastal and southern regions of Lithuania, it would appear that some GAC migrants replaced the indigenous Subneolithic forager groups, whilst in other areas, they had little to no impact on the local cultural and economic development.

In: Acta Archaeologica

Between 2800 and 2400 cal BC pastoralists from Central Europe migrated into the eastern Baltic paving the way for the Corded Ware Culture (CWC), and a new type of economy, animal husbandry. Traditionally the CWC people were viewed as highly mobile due to the lack of substantial traces of dwellings and material culture at settlement sites; they were reliant on an economy based on animal husbandry as demonstrated by zooarchaeological and stable isotopic evidence. However, this paradigm is beginning to shift. Here, we present new AMS radiocarbon (14C) measurements, pollen and macrobotanical data from sediment samples and a portable fish screen, as well as technological, molecular and isotopic data obtained from ceramic vessels from three CWC sites in the eastern Baltic. Overall, our results indicate a de-Neolithisation process undergone by some CWC groups, particularly in lacustrine and coastal ecotones, and a shift to hunting, gathering and fishing.

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In: Acta Archaeologica