This paper is based on a review of the work and various activities of Protestant churches in China, in order to understand the efforts that are being made by them to approach a civil society under construction. This entire paper can be divided into six parts: I. Chinese civil society under Construction and functional orientation of Protestant churches in China; II. Specific approaches to a civil society: social service and social care; III. Foundation of approaching a civil society: theology and church organizations construction; IV. International vision required for approaching a civil society: promotion of overseas exchange; V. Sustaining motive power of approaching a civil society: self-cognition and introspection; VI. Conclusion. This paper holds that the “factors of civil society” that Protestant churches in China contain have presented themselves in various ways in recent years. This is a good foundation for Protestantism in China to engage in the construction of civil society, providing contributions for a harmonious society.
Parasitism genes encoding secretory proteins expressed in the pharyngeal glands of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in the parasitic process. A new expansin gene (Ha-expb1) expressed in the subventral glands of the sedentary cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae, was cloned. Southern blot analysis suggested that Ha-expb1 is a member of a multigene family. The deduced protein Ha-EXPB1 consists of a signal peptide, a CBM II and an expansin domain, and was significantly similar to expansins and expansin-like proteins from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and the pine wood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus spp. In situ hybridisation showed that Ha-expb1 transcript specifically accumulated in the two subventral gland cells of the second-stage juveniles. Developmental expression confirmed that its transcript abundances were high in the motile juvenile stages and low in the sedentary stage of the nematode, implying a role in the early parasitic-stage process, most likely in aiding migration within the plant.
Plant-parasitic nematodes have developed a series of enzymes to degrade the rigid plant cell wall; β-1,4-endoglucanase is a very important component. Ditylenchus destructor is a migratory endoparasite for which few molecular data have been published. Two novel β-1,4-endoglucanases (Dd-eng-1a and Dd-eng-2) were cloned and characterised from D. destructor. The DD-ENG-1A putative protein consists of a signal peptide, a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). By contrast, the CBM domain is absent from DD-ENG-2. The exon/intron structure and phylogenetic tree indicate that both cellulase genes could have evolved from common ancestral genes. Southern blotting confirmed that the β-1,4-endoglucanases were of nematode origin and a member of a small multi-gene family. In situ hybridisation localised the expression of Dd-eng-1a and Dd-eng-2 to the subventral pharyngeal glands. RT-PCR showed that both genes were expressed in the adult female and second-stage juvenile. The stylet secretions of D. destructor showed clear cellulase activity in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) plate assay, and similar results were observed in total homogenates and DD-ENG-1A and DD-ENG-2 recombinant proteins. These results demonstrated that D. destructor can produce and secrete functional cellulases. Silencing the putative β-1,4-endoglucanases by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) resulted in an average decrease in infection of 50%. Successful RNAi in vitro was demonstrated in this study, which confirmed that Dd-eng-1a and Dd-eng-2 play important roles in nematode parasitism.