Search Results

Editor: Hans Bakker
Author: Hans Bakker
Three parts in one Volume (Pt. I: The History of Ayodhya from the 7th century BC to the middle of the 18th century; its development into a sacred centre with special reference to the Ayodhyamahatmya and to the worship of Rama according to the Agastyasamhita. Pt. II: Ayodhyamahatmya. Introduction, Edition, and Annotation. Pt. III: Appendices, Concordances, Bibliography, and Indexes). With illustrations and 5 maps.
Editor: Hans Bakker
The central theme of the symposium was elaborated upon according to various religions, periods and areas, such as North India (historical) by H. Kulke, A. Wink, J. C. Heesterman and H. T. Bakker; South India (historical) by D. Shulman, B. Stein and G. Berkemer; contemporary India by C.J. Fuller, L.P. van den Bosch and J. P. Parry; Sri Lanka by G. Obeyesekere; the Byzantine Empire by A. N. Palmer; the Moroccan Sultanate by H. Beck, and the European Middle Ages by M. Gosman.

This systematic approach focusing on a well-defined theme in a widely differentiated context appears to be fruitful. An often little recognized, though essential, universal aspect of important places of pilgrimage is their embedment in political ramifications. Analysis of religious structures and representations which are concentrated and reified in sacred centres, shows remarkable agreement and linkage with political institutions and ideology through a common symbolism.

The contributions to the symposium establish that sacred centres are the places par excellence where political authority is legitimized; they help to articulate these systematic aspects by making them the focus of scholarly discourse starting from different disciplines.
Author: Hans Bakker

Abstract

This article discusses the concept of 'holy war' and the religious ideas it implies. According to some these ideas are characteristic of monotheistic traditions. The author investigates recent developments in Hinduism and comes to the conclusion that some of these characteristics are coming to the fore in modern forms of the Hindu religion that have strong bonds with fundamentalist movements. The question of the mosque occupying the holy spot in Ayodhyā, which is considered as the birth-spot of Visnu's incarnation as Rama, plays a central role in these developments. 'Liberation' of this site has many features in common with the motif of liberating Jerusalem in the age of the crusades. The author concludes by remarking that, though Hinduism has proved in the past to be a religion not prone to holy wars, recent developments in Indian society have made the prospect of a holy war between Hindus and Muslims seem only too real and close.

In: Numen
In: Myths, Martyrs, and Modernity
In: Indo-Iranian Journal
Author: Hans Bakker

Abstract

An incomplete Sanskrit inscription found in the south gate of the Jami Masjid at Jaunpur has traditionally been ascribed to the Maukhari king of Kanauj Īśvaravarman (first half of 6th century). Collation of this inscription with another Maukhari inscription (the Haraha Stone Inscription of Īśānavarman) makes it clear that the Jaunpur inscription is to be ascribed to his son Īśānavarman or one of his successors. This collation is made possible by recovering the metrical structure of the very fragmentary Jaunpur inscription. The article edits the text of the Jaunpur inscription in its versified form, gives a translation, and presents a comparison with the Haraha Inscription in the annotation.

In: Indo-Iranian Journal
In: Indo-Iranian Journal
In: Indo-Iranian Journal
Author: Hans Bakker
The World of the Skandapurāṇa explores the historical, religious and literary environment that gave rise to the composition and spread of this early Purana text devoted to Siva. It is argued that the text originated in circles of Pasupata ascetics and laymen, probably in Benares, in the second half of the 6th and first half of he 7th centuries. The book describes the political developments in Northern India after the fall of the Gupta Empire until the successor states which arose after the death of king Harsavardhana of Kanauj in the second half of the 7th century. The work consists of two parts. In the first part the historical environment in which this Purāṇa was composed is described. The second part explores six localities in Northern India that play a prominent role in the text. It is richly illustrated and contains a detailed bibliography and index.