Adding flexibility, user-friendliness, and multilinguality to Kirschbaum's reference work
A free beta version is now available. Feedback is very welcome.
This online edition of the LCI combines the valuable content of the unique iconographical reference work with the possibilities of the Digital Humanities: links to other databases and sources, connections to millions of images, and Google Translate support for English, French, and Italian
Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie - Lexicon of Christian Iconography (LCI) is an eight-volume iconographical reference work on motifs of Christian tradition prepared by Kirschbaum and his successors. Volumes 1-4 cover general iconographic terms, giving the context of individual subjects and themes. Volumes 5-8 cover the iconography of saints. In addition to the iconography of a motif or saint, the articles list the most important sources, often a short biography and a short list of the most important research literature. Illustrations represent essential types of the respective picture object. Although the first volume of the LCI was published in 1968 and the eighth in 1976 it remains the standard work in German to this day and has been reissued several times unchanged. The new Brill online publication combines the valuable content with the advantages of digitization.
The digital edition A completely revised edition of the LCI’s content and an English translation would have taken years to produce. More importantly perhaps, a complete overhaul of its content would have disconnected the lexicon from the thousands of references in scholarly literature pointing to the LCI by volume and column number. Hence, we decided to produce the first digital edition of the LCI in a more cautious manner.
The first step towards a digital edition had to be to improve the ease-of-use of the lexicon, while preserving the original layout and content of the lemmata and the articles. To facilitate navigation, the pages have been digitized, while the lemmata and the full text of the eight volumes have been made browsable and searchable. Because Google translate has been incorporated in the database, the German language text can easily be translated in English, French, Italian and Dutch. Each lemma is now provided with an
Iconclass notation and directly linked to Brill’s
Arkyves database, a treasure trove of images to illustrate the various motifs and themes. Linking to other databases, either in Open Access or subscription based, is a work in progress.
- Full text searchable in German
Iconclass encoding automatically added more than 100,000 keywords in German, English, French, Italian and Portuguese, a first but important step towards multilingual accessibility
- Page overview of all 2840 pages in the LCI in one giant zoomable and clickable
- Lemma list in German (Concordances in English, French and Italian forthcoming)
- Because Google Translate is incorporated in LCI, English, French, Italian and Dutch versions of the original German are automatically provided
- References are clickable and offer the opportunity to jump to the relevant page in the LCI
- Searchable by
- Most black and white images in the original Lexicon now available in full color
- Direct link with
Arkyves, containing more than 1 million images (full access for Arkyves subscribers only)
- Direct link to Index of Medieval Art (Princeton University)
New features in development:
- English, French and Italian lemmalist
- Direct link to other databases and typological sources
- Direct link to English language Bible texts
Arkyves is both a unique database of images and texts and a meeting place for everyone who wants to study imagery and publish about it. All visual and textual sources are made accessible with the help of the multilingual vocabulary for cultural content of the
Iconclass system. By using this system it has been made possible to find and retrieve images and texts from various sources on a specific topic.
Arkyves it is currently possible to access almost 900.000 images, texts, etc. from libraries and museums in many countries among them the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands Institute for Art History (RKD), the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, and the university libraries of Milan, Utrecht and Glasgow . More collections will follow in the near future. The database contains a link to the images which are available in open access.
Arkyves is both a research tool for art historians and book historians, as well as a tool to facilitate the process of describing images.
Some of Arkyves’ features:
• Completely rewritten front-end: responsive design in a modern web application.
• New user interface: clear and easy to use, centered around pre-selected themes.
• Iconclass controlled vocabulary for improved powerful retrieval options.
• Iconclass searches currently possible in 9 different languages (English, Dutch, French, German, Finnish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, Chinese)
• For partners: possibility to create dedicated Iconclass retrieval browsers, for easy inclusion in their website.
• Arkyves is now open as a platform to assist institutions and individual researchers to catalogue and publish their own datasets of images in hybrid Open Access.
• Updated back-end search, based on industry-leading ElasticSearch.
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek; Biblia Sacra project; Bibliothèques Virtuelles Humanistes; Byvanck Illuminated Manuscript project; Cardiff University; Deutsches Hygiene-Museum, Dresden; Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington; Getty Research Institute & Provenance Index; Glasgow University Library; Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; The Leiden Collection, New York; Museum Meermanno; RKD, Netherlands Institute for Art History; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig; University Library, Amsterdam; University Library, Utrecht; University of Milan, Marengo; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
To enquire about this product, or arrange a free 30-day institutional trial, please contact our Sales Department at firstname.lastname@example.org (outside the Americas) or email@example.com (the Americas).
1) Arkyves demo:
Product information Information about 'Arkyves, Reference Tool for the History of Culture': what is it, how can you use it, the different tools, future developments, and more.
Watch it here 2) Arkyves demo:
Searching for content in Arkyves Examples of the different kinds of search possibilities in Arkyves.
Watch it here