This study focuses on the appropriation of Biblical doom saying to the city of Rome in Targum Jonathan. After discussing the phenomenon of anti-Roman utterances within Jewish exegesis, we will examine seven Targum verses that mention Rome. The appearance, modifications and disappearance of references to Rome are shown in Medieval manuscripts representing Targum Jonathan’s various textual branches and in early modern printed editions of the Rabbinic Bibles and the Polyglot Bibles. When transmitting such anti-Roman Targum verses, Christian Hebraists faced tension, as will be demonstrated, between loyalty to the Church’s capital city and academic integrity, which demanded compliance with the Aramaic consonantal text. We will therefore also show their, at times, creative solutions.
Hans van Nes
This article investigates possible sources behind the Targum in Jacob ben Hayyim’s Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1525), which served as the authoritative text for centuries. The previous edition of the Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1517) already received much attention in this regard and this inquiry builds on those findings. It focuses on the Targum of 1Samuel and compares Ben Hayyim’s deviations from the former Rabbinic Bible with various manuscripts. It allows for a tentative conclusion regarding Ben Hayyim’s Targum Vorlage.