An ideal scheme of intergovernmental transfer should be determined by equalization and efficiency with taking account of fiscal effort of local governments. In this regard, this paper provides a comprehensive review of Chinese transfer system since the decentralized taxation system (DTS) starting from 1994. To begin with, we make numerical analysis on equalization in economic and fiscal aspects since the 1994 DTS reform. A Panel Data model is then developed to analyze correlations between each of three types of transfer and fiscal effort of provincial governments based on Chinese experience during 1994–2006. The authors further research respective situation of eastern, middle and western parts of China and finally draw a conclusion through the above analysis that the current fiscal transfer system does not tangibly contribute towards improving fiscal effort devoted by local governments. In addition to that, it even has a somewhat counter-equalizing effect.
The secondary phloem in the trunk and branchlet of three species in Meliaceae, Swietenia macrophylla L., Chukrasia talularis A. Juss. and Melia azedarach L., was examined using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The vacuole protein bodies are found in most of the phloem parenchyma cells except companion cells. The protein nature of the bodies was demonstrated by the mercury - bromophenol blue reaction and enzymatic digestion with pepsin. Electronmicroscopical observations show that the protein bodies are electron-dense granules in central vacuoles. In the terminal branchlet, the protein bodies are extremely abundant before flushing in spring and most of them disappear in the inner phloem after flushing. This suggests that the vacuole protein bodies have a storage function.
Using data on prepaid cards for an online game listed on Taobao.com, this paper examines the impact of sellers’ reputation on their sales in China’s online market. It is found that sellers’ good reputation has a positive impact on their sales volume, but the marginal effect of this impact decreases severely. We also find that sellers’ affiliation with seller coalitions can increase their sales in a given period. Results show that individual and collective reputation can function well in the absence of mature law and social credit system related to online trade, and that private order can substitute public order in a market with immature laws as in China.
The relationship between the cell wall ultrastructure of waterlogged wooden archeological artifacts and the state of water bound to cell walls and free in voids is fundamental to develop consolidating and drying technologies. Herein, a lacquer-wooden ware and a boat-coffin dating 4th century BC were selected as representative artifacts to study. Wood anatomy results indicated that they belonged to Idesia sp. and Machilus sp., respectively. They exhibited a typical spongy texture, as revealed by SEM observations, and their water contents had increased significantly. Solid state NMR, Py-GC/MS, imaging FTIR microscopy and 2D-XRD results demonstrated that the deterioration resulted from the partial cleavages of both polysaccharide backbones and cellulose hydrogen-bonding networks, almost complete elimination of acetyl side chains of hemicellulose, the partial depletion of β-O-4 interlinks, as well as oxidation and demethylation/demethoxylation of lignin. These further caused the disoriented arrangement of crystalline cellulose, and the decrease in cellulose crystallite dimensions and crystallinity. In consequence, mesopores and macropores formed, and the number of moisture-adsorbed sites and their accessibility increased. Moreover, results on free water deduced by the changes of pore structure and the maximum monolayer water capacity achieved by the GAB model indicated that water in waterlogged archeological wooden artifacts was mainly free water in mesopores.
Although pond culture is the major culture method for Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in China, the pattern of ovarian development in pond-reared E. sinensis remains unclear. This study investigated the changes in ovarian morphology and histology, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and monthly variation of the ovarian development pattern during the ovarian maturation of pond-reared female E. sinensis. Based on the pubertal moult, and ovarian morphology and histology, the ovarian development cycle of E. sinensis could be divided into five stages, i.e., Stage I: the ovary appears thin ribbon-like and translucent, dominated by oogonia (OG) and previtellogenic oocytes (PRO); Stage II: the ovary appears milk white or buff, dominated by endogenous vitellogenic oocytes (EN); Stage III: the ovary appears orange or light brown, dominated by exogenous vitellogenic oocytes (EX); Stage IV: the ovary appears crimson red or brown and ovarian lobes occupy most available body cavities. The major oocytes were nearly mature oocytes (NO); Stage V: the ovary appears deep purple and is filled with mature oocytes (MO). During ovarian maturation, the GSI increased significantly and a significant, positive correlation was found between the GSI and the mean long diameter of the oocyte from stage III to stage V. However, a significantly negative correlation was found between GSI and HSI. The ovarian development of pond-reared female E. sinensis was not synchronous, most of the pubertal moults were found until mid-late August. At the end of August, the percentages of females that reached ovarian stages II and III were 55 and 24%, respectively. After that, the ovarian development of pond-reared female E. sinensis became fast, and females with stage III or more advanced ovaries were found to be in excess of 80% by the end of September and onward. From the end of November to late December, the GSI of female E. sinensis did not increase significantly, which indicated pond-reared females had reached mature or nearly-mature ovaries by the end of November.
We previously demonstrated that mutants induced from pure lines with quality assurance had microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat, SSR) genotypes almost identical to their parent varieties, and genetic variants derived from accidental out-crossing might be selected as "mutants" in rice. In the present study, fourteen previously developed rice mutant lines were analyzed for their SSR genotypes in parallel with their respective parents. Among them, eleven mutant lines had SSR genotypes identical to their parents; however, three mutant lines, i.e., Os-lpa-XS110-1, Huangyu B, and Zhu I, had 4.3, 6.6, and 9.1% of SSRs different from their parents, respectively. Additional analysis proved that Huangyu B was mistakenly recorded in the development process and should be a mutant line of another variety, II 32 B; Zhu I very probably resulted from an out-crossing rather than from mutagenesis. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of induced mutantfacilitated gene discovery.
This study was to examine the immunomodulatory effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Immune parameters were not suppressed by OTC treatment in haemocytes in vitro. A total of 96 healthy shrimp were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 received 50 mg OTC/kg body weight/day. Group 3 received 1 g β-glucan/kg feed. Group 4 received 50 mg OTC/kg body weight/day and 1 g/kg β-glucan. OTC residues were more highly accumulated in the hepatopancreas than in muscle tissue during the rearing period, and the addition of β-glucan prolonged the retention time of OTC in the muscle tissue. Additionally, dietary administration of OTC in combination with β-glucan facilitated the excretion of OTC from the hepatopancreas. Shrimp that orally ingested OTC alone had an elevated total haemocyte count, phagocytosis, superoxide anion production and prophenoloxidase activity, and these immunostimulatory effects were further enhanced in shrimp receiving OTC in combination.