Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 32 items for

  • Author or Editor: Heinz Meyer x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
Untersuchungen zur Überlieferungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichte von "De proprietatibus rerum"
Author:
In: Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte
In: Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte

Abstract

At present, institutional design is an under-theorized and underdeveloped part of the social sciences. In this paper I focus on designs for situations of collective action where the outcome is controlled by the choices of several self-interested actors. In those situations the goal of institutional design is to alter the rules of the game so that self-interested actors find it rational to cooperate. I explore the viability of that definition by considering two examples of institutional design: urban safety and academic peer review. I discuss the implications of my findings for our conception of rational self-interest and propose that three design principles – publicity, boundaries, and contiguity – can be inferred from the analysis.

In: Comparative Sociology

Abstract

In this paper I use international differences in disability rates as a window to address the question how national culture influences a nation’s understanding and practice of disability. I apply the well-established distinction between individualistic and collectivistic cultures to explore the relationship between culture and disability rates. I argue and find support for the hypothesis that individualistic cultures exhibit higher rates of disability. In the second part I add cultural and institutional detail to the account. While individualistic and collectivist cultures both value assistance to the disabled, only the Western individualist tradition produces a rights-based approach to disability.

In: Comparative Sociology

Abstract

Cultures differ greatly as to which specific conditions they recognize as a disability, how they interpret matters of causation and consequence, and which kinds of remedy they believe adequate. The papers in this special issue of Comparative Sociology explore the institutional and cultural variation of disability as well as the underlying causes, including a culture’s degree of individualism / collectivism.

In: Comparative Sociology

Abstract

Why is the Japanese rate of students with disability a fraction of that of the United States? Barring genetic differences between Americans and Japanese, the difference in disability rates must be what Durkheim called a “social fact,” a phenomenon explained by social differences between the two countries. In this paper we focus on the institutional and cultural factors that enter into the Japanese construction of disability of school-aged students. We argue that the lower incidence of disability in Japan is a result of Japan’s strong collectivist and paternalistic orientation and the requisite institutions promulgating those beliefs. The latter play a key role in the translation of general cultural dispositions into concrete policies and behavior on the ground.

In: Comparative Sociology