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The decision to embark on researching maps in books has resulted in a publication, presenting an unique combination of maps, plans and views. It concerns those, tucked away in historical and geographical works on Russia and Poland, prior to 1800 and published in the Netherlands. Both maps and books are elaborately described, analysed and indexed; much attention has been lavished on their authors, engravers and publishers to boot. The cartographic subdivision of the maps according to their regions brings to light the specific interrelation between the various works by differing authors.
The comprehensive introduction describes the history of Russia and Poland from various points of view for specific subjects and comes richly illustrated with over 100 images. The cartobibliography contains illustrations for each of the over 700 maps described and the bibliography features a large number of title pages and portraits in addition. This unusual combination of research objectives should appeal to map and book historians and collectors alike. A large folding view of the city of Moscow by Cornelis de Bruijn (1711) has been added in facsimile at the back of this publication. Summaries in Russian and Polish complete this publication.
In English with Polish and Russian summary.
Maps in Books of Russia and Poland is part 13 of the Utrecht Studies on the History of Cartography (Explokart).

Abstract

The orientation and organisation of collagen fibrils play an important role in the mechanical functioning of the articular cartilage (AC) that covers the surfaces in the diarthrodial joints. In the adult animal, typically an arcade like 'Benninghoff structure' is found. Because the remodelling capacity of the collagen network in the adult animal is limited, this Benninghoff structure needs to develop before the animal reaches maturity, and it needs to develop correctly. The aim of this study is to use quantitative polarised light microscopy (qPLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to investigate if this Benninghoff structure is already present in the young animal, and to quantitatively investigate possible differences in collagen structure in the equine distal metacarpus of the young and adult animal. In total, 21 forelimbs of 13 horses are used. In animals of age 10 months and older, we find an arcade like Benninghoff structure for the collagen fibril network in both the qPLM and SEM study. The qPLM study shows that the collagen's predominant orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the entire cartilage depth in two animals directly after birth. These findings are supported by SEM results on a foal. We conclude that structural remodelling of the collagen network in AC occurs in the first months after birth. Because animals start with collagen parallel to the articular surface and need to remodel this structure to a Benninghoff architecture, and because collagen structure is an important parameter for AC mechanics and mechanobiology, these results suggest implications for AC epigenetics.

In: Animal Biology