Phyllomedusa burmeisteri was studied during breeding aggregations in a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil. Males were territorial and aggressive. Behavioral patterns exhibited by them included acoustical and visual communication, chase, and wrestling, the latter when the intruder did not retreat with the preceding threats. Females also performed visual displays, however in different contexts, before approaching toward a calling male. The vocal repertoire of P. burmeisteri consisted of two types of advertisement call (short type and long type), territorial call and encounter call. Information about spatial-temporal distribution, courtship, and mating behavior are presented.