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Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 24–26 October 2017
Volume Editor: Henryk Drawnel
The essays in Sacred Texts and Disparate Interpretations cover an array of core themes from various areas of Qumran studies, including textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Second Temple history, philology, paleography, Wisdom and religious poetry.
Contributors to this volume generally consider these themes from a historical perspective, trying to find new solutions to old questions and entering in constructive dialogue with the opinions of other scholars. Paleographic investigations, textual criticism as well as literary and philological approaches make this volume a valuable contribution to the variegated and often highly specialized directions of inquiry into the contents and historical background of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Author: Henryk Drawnel


In the myth of the fallen Watchers (1 En. 6–11) the giants, illegitimate offspring of the fallen angels, are depicted as exceedingly violent beings that consume the labour of all the sons of men. They also kill men, devour them, and drink blood. Finally, they sin against all the animals of the earth. The violent behaviour of the giants in 1 En. 7:2–5 continues in 1 En. 15:11 where the spirits of the giants attack humanity, thus it appears that the spirits behave in a manner similar to that of the giants. The present article argues that the description of the giants in 1 En. 7:2–5 and their spirits in 15:11 is modeled after the violent behaviour of the demons found in the Mesopotamian bilingual series Utukkū Lemnūtu. The giants, therefore, are not to be identified with the Mesopotamian warrior-kings, but their behaviour rather indicates that they actually are violent and evil demons.

In: Dead Sea Discoveries
In: From 4QMMT to Resurrection
In: A Teacher for All Generations (2 vols.)
Author: Henryk Drawnel

Scholarly treatments of the Visions of Levi have tended not to address the individual literary units of the text. An overview of the history of scholarship on this text reveals that neither the term “Aramaic Testament of Levi” nor the more neutral Aramaic Levi Document offers particular insights into the content of the text. Close attention to the literary forms of the text – which include an autobiographical narration, a petitionary prayer, a visionary dream, rewritten/reinterpreted Bible, sapiential/professional instruction, a birth account, a subsequent onomastic midrash, and a didactic poem, that concludes with a prophetic speech with apocalyptic overtones – reveal that the Visions of Levi should be understood as Jewish priestly didactic literature.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
In: Sacred Texts and Disparate Interpretations: Qumran Manuscripts Seventy Years Later
In: Sacred Texts and Disparate Interpretations: Qumran Manuscripts Seventy Years Later