The profound spiritual and cultural implications involved in the dramas of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuan Chao 元朝 CE 1271–1368) are related to the existential formation of Buddhism in a special way. For a long time, researchers have paid little attention to this essence. This article attempts to have an insight into the relationship between Yuan dramas and Buddhism
China is believed to have gained immensely from its admission into to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. One of the direct gains comes from the lessening of deadweight loss (DWL) due to tariff reduction. Conventional measures for DWL, however, are too aggregate to capture the trade policies, which are determined at a much higher disaggregated level, and ignore the interactions between tariff and corresponding import demand as suggested by theories. In this paper, we first systematically estimate the import demand elasticities at a highly disaggregated level and then match them with the most detailed lines of the applied tariff for the most favored nations as reported by the WTO. Using the detailed matching data, we construct Feenstra’s (1995) simplified trade restrictiveness index (TRI), which captures the covariance of tariff and the corresponding demand elasticity. Finally, we use the TRI to compute the DWL from1997 to 2008 and find that the DWL due to the tariff barrier was reduced to 0.73% of GNI in 2008, noticeably lower than the highest previous mark of 4.58% of GNI in 2001.
The genus Pseudostegana is revised, with descriptions of 20 new species from Southeast Asia: P. angustifasciata Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. atrofrons Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. bifasciata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. bisetosa Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. curvata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. dactylis Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. dolichopoda Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. hamata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. latifasciata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. leptoptera Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. melanogaster Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. melanopogonias Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. myrmecoformis Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. nitidifrons Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. nitidiventris Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. orbicapitata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. oxycephala Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. pallidimaculata Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. philoga Chen and Wang, sp. n. and P. xanthoptera Chen and Wang, sp. n. On the basis of the wing patterns, six species-groups are established: the atrofrons, grandipalpis, fleximediata, javana, latiparma and zonaria groups. A key to the all species of this genus is provided.
Organisms living in extreme environments, such as amphibians inhabiting the Tibetan plateau, are faced with a magnitude of potentially strong selection pressures. With an average elevation exceeding 4500 m, the Tibetan plateau is mainly characterized by low temperatures, but little is known about the influence of this factor on the growth, development, and behaviour of amphibian larvae living in this environment. Using a common garden experiment, we studied the influence of temperatures on the early growth and development of tadpoles of the Tibetan brown frog (Rana kukunoris) endemic to the eastern Tibetan plateau. We discovered that temperature had a significant influence on early growth and development of the tadpoles, with those undergoing high-temperature treatment growing and developing faster than their siblings from a low-temperature treatment. However, high-altitude individuals grew faster than low-altitude individuals at low temperatures, while the opposite was true at high temperatures. These results support the temperature adaptation hypothesis, as tadpoles’ growth and developmental rates were maximized at the temperatures experienced in their native environments. These results suggest that variation in ambient temperature, combined with evolutionary adaptation to temperature of local environments, is probably one of the most critical environmental factors shaping altitudinal differences in the growth and development of amphibian larvae on the Tibetan plateau.
In January 2019, the People’s Armed Police set up a working group to draft the Coast Guard Law of the People’s Republic of China. The 13th National People’s Congress Standing Committee concluded its twenty-fifth session and scrutiny of this draft law, which officially entered force on 1 February 2021. The Law is divided into 11 chapters and 80 articles, including but not limited to maritime security, maritime crime investigation, use of non-firearm and weapons, and international cooperation. This article outlines and analyses the Law, as well as focusing on its implications as a matter of international law.
Ground parenchyma cells play a crucial role in the growth and the mechanical properties of bamboo plants. Investigation of the morphology of ground parenchyma cells is essential for understanding the physiological functions andmechanical properties of these cells. This study aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of bamboo ground parenchyma cells and provide a qualitative and quantitative basis for the more effective utilization of bamboo. To do this, the morphology of ground parenchyma cells in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) was studied using light microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results show that various geometric shapes of ground parenchyma cells were observed, including nearly circular, square, long, oval, and irregular shapes. Cell walls of both long and short parenchyma cells exhibited primary wall thickening and secondary wall thickening, resulting in a primary pit field and simple pits. Most long cells were strip-shaped (L/W = 2.52), while most short cells were short and wide (L/W = 0.59). The proportion of long cells was 11 times greater than that of short cells. Most long cells were filled with starch grains, and some short cells also occasionally had starch grains. These findings allowed the first construction of the three-dimensional structure of parenchyma cells.
The effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms are of increasing concern. Exopalaemon carinicauda is an important economic shrimp. However, little is known about the transcriptome data for shrimp in response to seawater acidification stress. In this study, the transcriptome of E. carinicauda in response to seawater acidification stress was recorded using the Illumina RNA-sequencing. A total of 59 990 unigenes from high-quality transcripts were generated. Of all annotated unigenes, 18 386 and 17 681 unigenes had significant matches with sequences in the NR, and GO databases, respectively. A total of 183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) could be screened, of which 119 DEGs were up-regulated and 64 DEGs were down-regulated. KEGG enrichment analysis showed these DEGs were primarily enriched in the pathways of lysosome, carbohydrate digestion and absorption, apoptosis, and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism. These results indicate that seawater acidification stress leads to the activation of apoptosis and the activity of the energy metabolism system in order to resist the external environmental stress and ensure the continuity of the normal life metabolism, and thus the energy supply of the organism. These data will be helpful to further study the molecular mechanisms of shrimp resistance to seawater acidification stress.