Authors: WANG Fengbin and JIANG Hong

While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China
Authors: WANG Fengbin and JIANG Hong

While knowledge exploration and exploitation represent two distinct activities requiring corresponding organizational arrangements, new product development calls for a dynamic combination of the two. Based on a systematic review of the paradox between knowledge exploration and exploitation and various resolving strategies, this research extends the construct of organizational ambidexterity from dual structure to ambidextrous capabilities, and suggests a dialectical method for reconciling this paradox at lower organizational levels. Based on a case study on the development teams of air conditioner in Haier, we find that ambidexterity is a multi-level construct existing not only at the organization level but also at lower levels such as teams and individuals like model managers

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China

This paper examines factors associated with international franchising firms’ entry modes when they enter the Chinese market. To this end, a survey was conducted to investigate the linkage between entry modes and characteristics of franchising firms. The logit model and regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Findings reveal four factors that significantly influence international franchisors’ entry mode choices including cultural and geographic distance, international market experience, risk spreading, and maturity of the franchising system.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China

Stock price movements in China still remain highly harmonious, in spite of the many significant regulatory and structural changes over the recent years. A survey of the literature reveals that harmony in the stock price movements is related to a few salient features in China’s capital market: high ownership concentration, high incidence of the use of pyramidal ownership structure, significant state ownership, and a lack of active institutional investors. In addition, we also point out that harmonious stock prices may generally result from low intensity of private information acquisitions by risk arbitrageurs.

In: Frontiers of Business Research in China

The molecular phylogeny of the Pinaceae represented by 13 species of 10 genera was constructed from PCR-RFLP analysis of the chloroplast gene trn K, which was approximately 2557 bp long. Ninety-two restriction sites, of which 68 were variable, were identified by 16 restriction enzymes. Thirty-five of the 68 polymorphic sites were phylogenetically informative. The restriction site data were analyzed by PAUP (version 3.1.1) with both the Wagner parsimony method and the Dollo parsimony method. As a result, Dollo and Wagner parsimonious trees have similar topologies except for the position of Cedrus. The Abies-Keteleeria-Tsuga-Pseudolarix clade was well resolved in all trees. Pseudotsuga is closely related to Larix, while Abies is relatively closely related to Keteleeria. As an isolated genus, Cathaya is distantly related to the Abies-Keteleeria-Tsuga-Pseudolarix clade, and is not very closely related to any other genus of the Pinaceae.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

To elucidate the genetic differentiation of the host populations of Heterodera glycines, 348 individuals from 13 populations of three host plants (Nicotiana tabacum, Glycine max and Rehmannia glutinosa) in north China were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. A significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (F is) was found in all populations. BOTTLENECK results showed that only three populations (ZT, CR, and MR) may have experienced a genetic bottleneck. The pairwise F ST values among the three host populations ranged from 0.0503 to 0.2867. There was no significant relationship between the genetic distance and geographical distance. STRUCTURE analyses suggest that R. glutinosa might have important influence on the genetic differentiation of H. glycines in north China. Our study demonstrates that H. glycines is an inbred species that is highly genetic differentiated.

In: Nematology

Abstract

The genus Pseudostegana is revised, with descriptions of 20 new species from Southeast Asia: P. angustifasciata Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. atrofrons Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. bifasciata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. bisetosa Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. curvata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. dactylis Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. dolichopoda Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. hamata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. latifasciata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. leptoptera Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. melanogaster Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. melanopogonias Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. myrmecoformis Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. nitidifrons Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. nitidiventris Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. orbicapitata Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. oxycephala Chen and Toda, sp. n., P. pallidimaculata Chen and Wang, sp. n., P. philoga Chen and Wang, sp. n. and P. xanthoptera Chen and Wang, sp. n. On the basis of the wing patterns, six species-groups are established: the atrofrons, grandipalpis, fleximediata, javana, latiparma and zonaria groups. A key to the all species of this genus is provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The study area presented in this paper comprises two geographical entities in northern Upper Nubia located between the Second and the Third Cataract of the Nile River: Sai Island and the Amara West district, on the present left bank of the river. Four sites, three at Sai Island and one in the Amara West district, were excavated. They represent three distinct archaeological complexes, named Arkinian, Khartoum Variant, and Abkan, which encompass a long time period from ca. 11,000 to 6000 cal years BP (9000–4000 BC) and range from late foraging to early pastoralism. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating was applied to multiproxy materials in order to provide a frame of reference for this important chronological and economic period in this area. Different types of materials were selected, namely wood charcoal, charcoal tempers in pottery, ostrich eggshell, and aquatic gastropod shells. Twenty-four new AMS radiocarbon dates are presented to (a) cross-check the accuracy and reliability of the chronology of late foraging and early pastoral sites in our study area; (b) integrate, update, and revise the previously available radiometric dates; and (c) reconstruct a comprehensive framework of the chronology of late foraging and early pastoralism in Upper Nubia.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

The purpose of this study was to investigate the memory effects of the postgraduates’ memorizing Everyday English from 30 to 100 using the Natural Numeral Imagery Memory (Method by memorizing the concrete objects associated with the shapes of Arabic numeral to produce marvelous imagination, MMOASAPMI). The results indicated as follows: Firstly, the postgraduates, who applied the MMOASAPMI to memorize and recall the Everyday English from 30 to 100, could recite them well in sequence backward, forward, and randomly. The reaction time of reciting any sentence randomly is no more than 2 seconds. Secondly, it can transform the materials of the short-term memory into long-term memory quickly, and effectively prevent them from the interference of proactive and retroactive inhibition, so it is useful for keeping memorized information with less loss and remaining for a long period. Thirdly, with the materials in strong sequence, large quantities and the difficulty to memorize, it is an extremely effective method for memorizing them. Fourthly, the keys to improving the memory efficiency are the well-storing skills of memory, storing methods, and memory clues.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
In: Chinese Capitalisms