In modern Chinese dialects, the evolution of Middle Chinese Zhi 知 series initials is very complicated. This article collects linguistic records and analyses that are related to this topic from a variety of published academic materials. The catalyst behind these diverse sound changes is shown to be the phonological feature [+flat]. In addition, this article also investigates the neutralization in the evolution of Zhi series initials in some Shanxi and Hebei dialects.
This paper analyzes the re-classification of the Ru tone with voiceless initials in Beijing dialect from the perspective of internal development. The main factors that cause the Ru tone to change into four different unchecked tones are the laryngealization feature accompanying the loss of stop endings and the rotary change of high and low in the unchecked tones.
本文從內部音變的角度重新闡釋北京話清入歸派現象，認為清入字韻尾消失後對音節發聲形成的緊喉音色，以及北京話聲調調值的高低環流變化是造成清入字派入四聲的原因。(This article is in Chinese.)