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Marine Conservation Agreements

The Law and Policy of Reservations and Vetoes

Howard Schiffman

The decline of many living marine resources requires us to carefully examine the existing framework for ocean governance. The ability of states to opt out of, or even veto, measures adopted by marine conservation and management organizations is often discussed as a factor contributing to the present decline. This book examines the extent to which objection procedures, specific reservation provisions and vetoes (termed collectively as “exemptive provisions”) have been utilized in the history of key marine conservation and management regimes and the impact they have had. Drawing upon classic treaty law, the law of reservations in particular, the law of the sea and the developing field of international environmental law, this book explores the evolving legal landscape that informs, and potentially limits, the use of exemptive provisions in marine conservation and management regimes.