Based on the ideas of A. Chumakov and Z. Orudzhev on the objective possibility of the formation of a universal civilization, the present article analyzes the historical stages and main factors of the formation of a global civilization. The first stage begins with the identification of a free person, the emergence of the concept of a citizen, the formation of an equality relationship, and the creation of public law. The second stage is associated with the emergence of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, in which the equality of all people before God is preached. The authors substantiate the thesis that the third historical level and principle of civilization is the rule of law, the basic value of democracy and liberalism. This paper substantiates the concept according to which each national-ethnic region makes its own contribution to the formation and evolution of global civilization. This concept is concretized in an analysis of the formation of civilizational values in the works of outstanding Turkic-Muslim poets-thinkers and rulers of Nasimi, Babur and the politics of the Ottoman Empire of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this historical period, poets developed and glorified the greatness of man, and a kind and respectful attitude towards man, which are the criteria for the civilization of society. The authors conclude that the process of forming a global civilization is an essential component of universal progress, but, even with objective grounds for its formation, it will not spontaneously form as an integral system. Its formation requires the joint efforts of scientists, politiciansm and civil society institutions.