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This publication is a tribute to the memory of the outstanding folklorist and ethnographer Dov Noy, who passed away in 2013. In the scholarly discourse that classifies folklore by modes and media of transmission, synagogue art—as distinct from folk narrative and behavioral lore—is commonly categorized as “visual folklore.” This paper examines the approach of classifying murals and sculptural decoration in east and central European synagogues from the late seventeenth century until the Holocaust as “folk creations.” It suggests a revision of pre-established definitions in the field, in general, and in the analysis of representative folk narratives relating to synagogues, in particular.

The position of academic research into traditional Jewish visual culture, at the seam of art history and folkloristics, challenges predefined divisions of this integral cultural phenomenon into the conventional categories of separate disciplines. In the discourse classifying folklore according to the ways and media of its transmission, synagogue art—in distinction to folk narratives and behavioral lore—commonly falls into the category of “visual folklore,” defined as the visual domain of folk art and material culture. Jewish “folk art” is often attributed generally to “folk artists” and “craftsmen,” without a clear distinction between the two groups. This paper holistically examines the approaches to the murals and sculptural decoration in east and central European synagogues from the late seventeenth century until the Holocaust as visual folklore, craftsmanship, and artistic work, and outlines the part of oral lore in the programming and interpretation of synagogue art. Finally, it proposes to re-approach folk synagogue art as a medium that creates a visual environment for liturgical activity and predicates its viewers’ responses to the challenges, trials, and tribulations of daily life.

In: IMAGES
In: Interaction between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art and Literature
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The volume explores the stone carved shrines for the scrolls of the Mosaic Law from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century synagogues in the former Polish Kingdom. Created on the margin of mainstream art and at a crossroad of diverse cultures, artistic traditions, aesthetic attitudes and languages, these indoor architectural structures have hitherto not been the subject of a monographic study. Revisiting and integrating multiple sources, the author re-evaluates the relationship of the Jewish culture in Renaissance Poland with the medieval Jewish heritage, sepulchral art of the Polish court and nobles, and earlier adaptations of the Christian revival of classical antiquity by Italian Jews. The book uncovers the evolution of artistic patronage, aesthetics, expressions of identities, and emerging visions among a religious minority on the cusp of the modern age.
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Abstract

The present article proposes a phenomenological analysis of shiviti plates bearing God’s name, set in front of the synagogue prayer leader. In the specimens exposed in modern Romanian synagogues, the Tetragrammaton dominates a hierarchic composition comprising texts (divine and angelic names, Kabbalistic sefirot, and didactic utterances) and images (the menorah, halo, heraldic devices, animals, and plants). The inscriptions act as ‘image-texts’ playing concurrent roles in both verbal and pictorial structures of the plates. The visual rendering of these shiviti evokes in the beholder a sense of meditative trance. They drove the worshipper’s communication with God’s presence along the path of mental visualisation of the letters of the divine name practiced by medieval Jewish esoteric scholars. In contrast to medieval Kabbalistic concentric diagrams that instruct the visionary’s meditation on God’s name and attributes, the shiviti images portray the products of visions. The phenomenon revealed sheds light on the unique role of visual art in establishing both the emotional mood and the intellectual modus of synagogue worship.


In: Sanctifying Texts, Transforming Rituals
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Abstract

The present article proposes a phenomenological analysis of shiviti plates bearing God’s name, set in front of the synagogue prayer leader. In the specimens exposed in modern Romanian synagogues, the Tetragrammaton dominates a hierarchic composition comprising texts (divine and angelic names, Kabbalistic sefirot, and didactic utterances) and images (the menorah, halo, heraldic devices, animals, and plants). The inscriptions act as ‘image-texts’ playing concurrent roles in both verbal and pictorial structures of the plates. The visual rendering of these shiviti evokes in the beholder a sense of meditative trance. They drove the worshipper’s communication with God’s presence along the path of mental visualisation of the letters of the divine name practiced by medieval Jewish esoteric scholars. In contrast to medieval Kabbalistic concentric diagrams that instruct the visionary’s meditation on God’s name and attributes, the shiviti images portray the products of visions. The phenomenon revealed sheds light on the unique role of visual art in establishing both the emotional mood and the intellectual modus of synagogue worship.


In: Sanctifying Texts, Transforming Rituals
In: The Torah Ark in Renaissance Poland