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Chapter 9 Framing the Early School Leaving Policy Problem

Abstract

Despite Indonesia’s commendable achievements in expansion of education participation in the last few decades, significant proportions of high-school-going age adolescents and 19–21-year old youths remain either out-of-school (OOS) or have not completed 12-year compulsory education. Further, contextual factors contributing to rural youths opting out of schooling toward alternative means to realise their perceptions of successful adulthood lead to an overrepresentation of rural youth in the OOS children population in Indonesia. Contributing to existing literature on studies conducting meta-analyses which map the terrain of research and policy analysis work addressing education access and participation in international contexts, this chapter presents a policy document analysis, making explicit three frameworks used to organise existing national policies and programs that address the OOS issue in Indonesia, and discussing underlying assumptions behind each framework. The analysis then employs insights from an ethnographic case study—to serve as a test case—involving international labour force participation of Indonesian youth in a rural community at the expense of their completion of secondary education. The case study featuring a phenomenon of the entanglement of rural communities and youths in state-driven transnational labour migration systems serves to consider the policy frameworks’ assumptions, potentials, and limitations.

In: Preparing Indonesian Youth

Abstract

Despite Indonesia’s commendable achievements in expansion of education participation in the last few decades, significant proportions of high-school-going age adolescents and 19–21-year old youths remain either out-of-school (OOS) or have not completed 12-year compulsory education. Further, contextual factors contributing to rural youths opting out of schooling toward alternative means to realise their perceptions of successful adulthood lead to an overrepresentation of rural youth in the OOS children population in Indonesia. Contributing to existing literature on studies conducting meta-analyses which map the terrain of research and policy analysis work addressing education access and participation in international contexts, this chapter presents a policy document analysis, making explicit three frameworks used to organise existing national policies and programs that address the OOS issue in Indonesia, and discussing underlying assumptions behind each framework. The analysis then employs insights from an ethnographic case study—to serve as a test case—involving international labour force participation of Indonesian youth in a rural community at the expense of their completion of secondary education. The case study featuring a phenomenon of the entanglement of rural communities and youths in state-driven transnational labour migration systems serves to consider the policy frameworks’ assumptions, potentials, and limitations.

In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
Part 3 Youth, Schooling, and Social Context of Education
In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
Part 2 School and Institutional Practices
In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
Part 1 Teachers and Teaching
In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
A Review of Educational Research
Preparing Indonesian Youth: A Review of Educational Research offers insights into the challenges and prospects in preparing Indonesian youth for 21st century living. The chapters feature empirically-based case studies focusing on three key aspects of education in Indonesia: teachers and teaching; school practices, programs, and innovations; and the social contexts of youth and schooling.

The case studies also represent different vantage points contributing to an enriched understanding of how larger social phenomenon—for example, education decentralisation in Indonesia, (rural-urban and transnational) migration, international benchmarking assessments, and the global feminist and women’s movement—impact and interact with enacted visions of preparing all youth educationally for work, as well as for meaningful participation in their respective communities and the Indonesian society at large.

Contributors are: Anindito Aditomo, Hasriadi Masalam, Juliana Murniati, Ahmad Bukhori Muslim, Wahyu Nurhayati, Shuki Osman, Margaretha Purwanti, Esti Rahayu, Ila Rosmilawati, Andrew Rosser, Widjajanti M. Santoso, Anne Suryani, Aries Sutantoputra, Novita W. Sutantoputri, Isabella Tirtowalujo, Nina Widyawati and David Wright.    
Chapter 1 Preparing Youth for Indonesia 4.0

Abstract

The introductory chapter recognises firstly the prevalence and uses of the “Indonesia 4.0” discourse in directing attention to whether and how youths in Indonesia are both benefiting and underserved educationally. This chapter frames the studies in the book from a macro perspective of the education system, as contributing to conversations on a range of issues toward preparing Indonesian youth for the envisioned present and future pertaining to: educational participation, quality, and equity; teaching and learning; and youth’s skills and employment. The book highlights cases that emphasise, critique, and delineate progresses, as well as new and persisting challenges. This chapter proposes ways the empirical studies contribute with insights to especially three aspects of the education system: teachers and teaching; programs and curricular offering in education especially at the secondary and tertiary levels; and the social and cultural contexts of education implicating youth’s encounters with schooling and educational experiences. This chapter foregrounds that the case studies bring into their analyses how larger social forces and phenomena—for example, political and education decentralisation, internal rural-urban and transnational migration, and the global feminist and women’s movement—shape and interact with visions of preparing all Indonesian youth for meaningful participation in the society.

In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
In: Preparing Indonesian Youth
In: Preparing Indonesian Youth

Abstract

The introductory chapter recognises firstly the prevalence and uses of the “Indonesia 4.0” discourse in directing attention to whether and how youths in Indonesia are both benefiting and underserved educationally. This chapter frames the studies in the book from a macro perspective of the education system, as contributing to conversations on a range of issues toward preparing Indonesian youth for the envisioned present and future pertaining to: educational participation, quality, and equity; teaching and learning; and youth’s skills and employment. The book highlights cases that emphasise, critique, and delineate progresses, as well as new and persisting challenges. This chapter proposes ways the empirical studies contribute with insights to especially three aspects of the education system: teachers and teaching; programs and curricular offering in education especially at the secondary and tertiary levels; and the social and cultural contexts of education implicating youth’s encounters with schooling and educational experiences. This chapter foregrounds that the case studies bring into their analyses how larger social forces and phenomena—for example, political and education decentralisation, internal rural-urban and transnational migration, and the global feminist and women’s movement—shape and interact with visions of preparing all Indonesian youth for meaningful participation in the society.

In: Preparing Indonesian Youth