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The functional low-fat sausage was prepared by replacing the fat to lard modified diglyceride (DG). After substitution, the quality of the sausage was measured by texture analyzer and the content of the 1,3-diglyceride (1,3-DG) in the sausage was measured by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The results showed that, when the substitution amount of the fat was 60%, the hardness of the sausage was moderate, the springiness and chewiness were better, and the 1,3-DG content could reach to 30%.

In: 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology
In: Molecular breeding for the genetic improvement of forage crops and turf
In: Handbook of Quantitative Methods for Educational Research
In: Handbook of Quantitative Methods for Educational Research
In: PBL in Engineering Education
In: Proceedings of the 21st European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition

Translocation of bacteria across the intestinal barrier is important in the pathogenesis of systemic sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Inflammatory cytokines increase paracellular permeability that allows increased luminal bacteria to translocate across mucosal epithelium and further deteriorate the gut barrier. In order to reduce this risk, the prophylactic use of probiotics has been recently addressed. In this paper, we investigate the protective role toward tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced non-pathogenic Escherichia coli translocation across Caco-2 monolayers of Lactobacillus strains. According to our experimental data, Lactobacillus plantarum L9 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA have good capacities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Addition of L. plantarum L9 and L. acidophilus LA to the enterocyte monolayer surface result in significant inhibition of E. coli adhesion and cell internalisation. However, L. plantarum L9 and L. acidophilus LA did not inhibit the growth of the non-pathogenic E. coli B5 after 24 h incubation. Exposure to TNF-α for 6 h caused a dramatic increase in E. coli B5 translocation across Caco-2 cells, which was uncoupled from increases in paracellular permeability. Pretreatment with L. plantarum L9 prevent TNF-α induced transcellular bacterial translocation and IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum L9 also did not affect the integrity of the monolayers, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase release, horseradish peroxidase permeability, and transepithelial electrical resistance. L. plantarum L9 showed the potential to protect enterocytes from an acute inflammatory response and therefore could be good potential prophylactic agents in counteracting bacterial translocation.

In: Beneficial Microbes

Cotton root rot (CRR) is a disease that ravages cotton crops in southwestern USA but can be mitigated with fungicide. Locations of infection in fields are consistent, so application can be limited to those locations, identifiable with remote sensing (RS). In 2015, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used for RS over an infected field. Two methods were developed to produce a prescription map (PM), the first designed for current spray equipment, and the second designed to identify individual infected plants for more precise future equipment. In 2017, fungicide was applied with a PM derived from 2015 imagery with the first method; fungicide application was reduced by 88%, and CRR area was reduced by 90%. The second method automatically classified UAV RS images at the single-plant level, indicating that fungicide application can potentially be done seed-by-seed during planting.

In: Precision agriculture '21