Sodium chloride is the most important ingredient in the dry-cured meat products. However, it has been accepted that salt has several negative effects on human health. Two salt replacers (KCl and k-lactate) were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium and their effects on physicochemical characteristic of dry-cured lacón. Colour parameters, chemical composition, shear force value and lipid oxidation were evaluated. The partial substitution of NaCl by other salts had effect on pH, color parameters and lipid oxidation. The inclusion of KCl provided the highest levels of luminosity redness and yellowness in the dry-cured ‘lacón’. The replacement with k-lactate showed a beneficial effect reducing lipid oxidation (0.58 vs 1.17 mg malonaldehyde/kg of lacón).
Rubia Gallega and Limousine breeds are well-known beef breeds, they are considered of high quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on the meat quality (pH, chemical composition, color parameters, water holding capacity and textural traits) of Friesian calves. Nineteen animals of two groups (Friesian crossed with Rubia Gallega [F×RG] and with Limousine [F×LI]) slaughtered at ten months were used in this study. The results showed that crossbreeding did not have effect on proximate composition and texture parameters. However, meat from F×RG animals was redder (a* 12.15) and lightest (L* 45.64) than meat from F×LI group. Finally, meat from both crosses could be considered ‘tender’ presenting shear force values below 36.5 N.
Nineteen animals of two groups (Rubia Gallega crossed with Friesian [RG×F] and Limousine crossed with Friesian [LI×F]) were used in this study in order to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on the fatty acid profile resulting calves. Male calves were reared in an intensive system and were fed with feed and straw, and slaughtered at the age of 10 months. The results showed that LI versus RG crossbreeding did not have significant effect on nutritional quality of the intramuscular fat (IMF). In general, the crosses LI×F showed the higher fatty acid contents. The most abundant fatty acids were SFA, with values that ranged between 46.32% and 47.77%, followed in importance by MUFA and PUFA.
The effect of the addition of natural Bifurcaria bifurcata seaweed extract on chemical composition and physical parameters of pork liver pâtés with 50% of fat replaced by canola and high oleic sunflower oil (75:25) was studied. The pâté samples were analysed after 0, 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Moisture, fat and pH values were not affected by the inclusion of seaweed extract in pâté samples over time. On the other hand, yellowness (b*) presented the highest values in pâté samples manufactured with seaweed extracts, whereas luminosity and redness values were not influence by antioxidant extract neither storage time.
Soybean allergy is one of the more common food allergies, especially among babies and children. The effect of different sources of protein on sensory properties of pâté was studied. A total of thirty samples of pâté [control (soybean protein) and modified batches (pea, lentil, bean and seaweed (Spiruline and Chlorella) protein) were assessed in this study. The preference test was conducted using a structured 6-point scale from 1 (most favorite) to 6 (less favorite). Acceptance and preference were evaluated by twenty-five panelists. Pâté samples enriched with bean and lentil protein showed the highest values among panelists, whereas samples with seaweeds presented the lowest scores.
Sodium chloride plays an important role in processed meat; reduction strategies remain relevant for the industry as they continue to meet the consumer demand for low sodium foods. Three salt replacers (KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2) were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the sensory properties of dry-cured lacón. Eight sensory traits of dry-cured ‘lacón’ were assessed: color intensity, odor intensity, hardness, juiciness, saltiness, metallic taste, bitterness and overall flavour. The intensity of every attribute was expressed on a structured scale from 0 (very low) to 9 (very high). The partial substitution of NaCl by other chloride salts can be achieved without significantly affecting sensory attributes of dry cured lacón.
The effect of Bifurcaria bifurcata extract on lipid oxidation of pork liver pâtés with partial replacement of fat by vegetable oils was evaluated. Conjugated dienes, TBARs index and volatile compounds were analyzed. No significant differences (P>0.05) on conjugated dienes were observed among batches neither storage time. A similar trend was found for TBARs values with a little decline at 180 days, although not significant (P>0.05) were observed. Total aldehydes and 2-hepatanone contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased at the end of storage period. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile compound both at the beginning and at the end of storage.
The influence of finishing diet (concentrate vs potato) on physicochemical parameters on longissimus dorsi muscle was studied. The results suggested that the inclusion of potato in the pig diet had slightly effect on proximate composition, color parameters and texture traits, since only significant differences (P<0.05) were found in ash content (1.33% vs 1.26%) and redness values (1.51 vs 2.37). The partial substitution of feed by potato in the finishing diet of pigs provides a good alternative for the reduction of production costs and allow to put in the market products of differentiated quality by a high added value, without affecting to a great extent the proximate composition and texture parameters of pork meat.
Both climate change and undernutrition affect young children. Climate change can contribute to the progression of undernutrition and can exacerbate existing conditions. Millions of people are affected when these phenomena occur. This study explored the relationship between climate variables and the nutritional status of young children from farming households in Infanta (Quezon) and Los Baños (Laguna) in the Philippines. Rainfall and temperature data were used to characterise the long-term climate conditions in the study areas. In addition, we collected data on children’s nutritional status and household characteristics through interviews with primary caregivers. The multiple logistic regression test showed that rainfall and temperature are not significantly related to stunting of children; location was the only variable that could explain stunting. Likewise, location was identified a factor that explains both underweight among children and rainfall. Children in Infanta were more at risk of being stunted and underweight than those in Los Baños. Infanta has a climate characterized by lower temperatures and higher rainfall than Los Baños. This study shows that climate change, particularly increased rainfall, can affect the nutritional status of children through higher incidence of illness. Thus, knowledge on climate variables is important to select and design appropriate strategies that take into account the effects of rainfall to help improve child nutrition.
New information on deep-water Cirripedia obtained during project surveys and experimental cruises in the Canary Islands region (NE Atlantic) have been analysed and collated with literature data. This annotated checklist includes 32 species of the Cirripedia Thoracica; four of them are recorded for the first time from the Canaries: Poecilasma aurantia, Poecilasma crassa, Heteralepas microstoma and Aurivillialepas falcata. Information on the barnacles’ animal hosts in the area is also updated and compiled for the first time.