Editor: Jabbra
Editors: Jabbra and Jabbra
Broadly speaking, we can view women and development as the empowerment of women in a Third World context. Accordingly, the question is whether women in the Middle East and North Africa benefit from development. If so, in what ways do they benefit? The essays in this volume survey a number of countries in the region to address these questions. The countries include Afghanistan, Palestine/Israel, Iran, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Egypt. There is also an introduction to the volume and a general essay on women and development. The authors themselves are an international group of social scientists specializing in the region.
Editors: Jabbra and Jabbra
This volume is the result of the co-author's keen interest in better understanding the environmental problems faced by all countries in the Middle East. It is also the result of the co-authors' deep commitment to urge Middle Eastern citizens and their leaders to work together for better protection of their precious and fragile environment so that it may be saved for the enjoyment and safety of future generations.
In the Middle East, geography and arid and simi-arid climatic conditions have led to a concentration of people in coastal zones and river valleys with acute water shortages, water and air pollution, increasing soil erosion, and intensifying desertification all creating serious environmental challenges. All these issues are addressed by eight leading scholars in eight chapters which include Jordan, Oman, Lebanon, Israel, Sudan, the Arabian Gulf, Iran, Syria.

Contributors are Badria A. Al-Awadhi, Joseph G. Jabra, Nancy W. Jabra, Jamil E. Jreisat, Joseph A. Keckichian, Alon Tal, Rania Masri, Damazo Dut Majak, Gloria Ibrahim Saliba, and Seid M. Zekavat.
Author: Nancy Jabbra

Abstract

With the passage of Proposition 209 by California voters in November 1996, affirmative action programs by public agencies had to be dismantled. Campaign rhetoric produced by proponents of the proposition emphasized the concept of merit and recalled civil rights rhetoric of the 1960s to suggest that affirmative action was in fact racial preference. This paper addresses the proposition that the emphasis on merit was in fact based on an unacknowledged belief that white women and members of visible minorities are, by definition, lacking in merit. My conceptual framework is based on Goffman's concept of stigma, notably the notion of a "spread effect" by which the mark of difference entails other areas of difference or defect. Data from published sources, together with inclass exercises and student focus groups, suggest that there is substantial support for my proposition.

In: Journal of Asian and African Studies

Abstract

Legitimacy is a major issue in Arab politics, and as a major socialization factor, education can legitimate those in power. In Iran, Syria and Iraq education has been carefully controlled and manipulated in order to produce desired political socialization ends. Lebanon is a sharp contrast since, because of the confessional system, the central government has done little to control education. Lack of uniformity and inequities of educational opportunities have contributed to Lebanon's civil strife.

In: Journal of Asian and African Studies

Abstract

This article explains the collapse of Lebanon's system of governance by viewing Lebanon as a case of consociational democracy that could not be maintained after the prerequisites and conditions conducive to its establishment were no longer met.

The discussion is in four parts: First, we examine and outline consociational democracy theory. Second, we show that this outline is applicable to Lebanon. Third, we examine the factors that pushed consociational democracy to the breaking point. Finally, we outline the ingredients of a new political system for Lebanon.

In: Journal of Developing Societies
In: Journal of Asian and African Studies