Search Results

Author: Jacek Jadacki
In: The Lvov-Warsaw School
In: Tradition of the Lvov-Warsaw School
In: Tradition of the Lvov-Warsaw School
Author: Jacek Jadacki

Abstract

The starting point of this paper is conceptual-terminological specification within the class of transformations performed on language formulas. The following types of transformations are distinguished: enlargement, generalization, extrapolation and variabilization – as well as standardization, schematization and clarification. The term “formalization” is sometimes used as a synonym for “variabilization,” “schematization” (that is, its basic sense), or “axiomatization.” Each theory is inherently a formal theory (in the basic sense); therefore, the opposition of formal theories to informal theories, and in particular of formal logic to informal logic, has no reason for existence; instead of the formality vel informality of some theories, e.g., logic, one should say that one theory, in particular a logical theory, is more (or less) formal than another. The motive for postulating informal logic is the charge of inadequacy against traditional formal logic. In practice, what is practiced under the banner of “informal logic” is sometimes the result of operations that have been called “clarification” here, or such an extension of classical logic that would be a theory of argumentation more adequate than the latter.

In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy
“The influence of [Kazimierz] Twardowski on modern philosophy in Poland is all-pervasive. Twardowski instilled in his students a passion for clarity [...] and seriousness. He taught them to regard philosophy as a collaborative effort, a matter of disciplined discussion and argument, and he encouraged them to train themselves thoroughly in at least one extra-philosophical discipline and to work together with scientists from other fields, both inside Poland and internationally. This led above all [...] to collaborations with mathematicians, so that the Lvov school of philosophy would gradually evolve into the Warsaw school of logic [...]. Twardowski taught his students, too, to respect and to pursue serious research in the history of philosophy, an aspect of the tradition of philosophy on Polish territory which is illustrated in such disparate works as [Jan] Łukasiewicz’s ground-breaking monograph on the law of non-contradiction in Aristotle and [Władysław] Tatarkiewicz’s highly influential multi-volume histories of philosophy and aesthetics [...] The term ‘Polish philosophy’ is a misnomer [...] for Polish philosophy is philosophy per se; it is part and parcel of the mainstream of world philosophy – simply because [...] it meets international standards of training, rigour, professionalism and specialization.” – Barry Smith (from: “Why Polish Philosophy does Not Exist”)
In: The Lvov-Warsaw School
In: The Lvov-Warsaw School
In: The Lvov-Warsaw School
Izydora Dąmbska (1904-1982) was a Polish philosopher; a student of Kazimierz Twardowski, and his last assistant. Her output consists of almost 300 publications. The main domains of her research were semiotics, epistemology and broadly understood methodology as well as axiology and history of philosophy. Dąmbska’s approach to philosophical problems reflected tendencies that were characteristic of the Lvov-Warsaw School. She applied high methodological standards but has never limited the domain of analyzed problems in advance.
The present volume includes twenty-eight translations of her representative papers. As one of her pupils rightly wrote: “Dąmbska’s works may help everyone [...] to think clearly. Her attitude of an unshaken philosopher may help anyone to hold oneself straight, and, if necessary, to get up after a fall”.