Two species of fossil angiosperm wood are described from the Oligocene of northwestern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. One specimen from Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill is identified as Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense Prakash et al. Because of its superior preservation, the specimen is designated as an epitype to the original holotype specimen of the species and genus. Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense is known only from the locality of Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill, and it represents the oldest fossil wood of true Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc. Three other wood specimens from Zichov are attributed to Liquidambaroxylon speciosum Felix. Modern wood of some species of Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc., Liquidambar L., Altingia Noronha, Corylopsis Sieb. & Zucc., Distylium Sieb. & Zucc., and Hamamelis L. was examined to determine how to distinguish the wood of Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae) from similar woods of Hamamelidaceae. The number of bars in the scalariform perforation plates of the vessels is about 40 in Cercidiphyllum, and about 20 in the Hamamelidaceae. Rays are variable, even at intra-specific level, and are not suitable for distinguishing these woods. These criteria were found to be useful in evaluating affinities of the fossil woods.
The first permineralized angiosperm wood from the Cenomanian of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic) is described. The wood is diffuse porous, with vessels solitary and in radial multiples of 2–5, perforation plates are exclusively simple, and tyloses abundant. Rays are usually 4–7-seriate and heterocellular, narrower rays are rare. The fossil is designated as Paraphyllanthoxylon aff. utahense Thayn, Tidwell et Stokes. Other occurrences of Paraphyllanthoxylon are reviewed and the equivocal botanical affinity of the taxon is discussed.
Several specimens of Lauraceae fossil wood from the Cenozoic of Greece (southern part of Lesbos), the Czech Republic (Kadaň-Zadní Vrch Hill and Jáchymov), and Hungary (Ipolytarnóc) were studied. When considering whether they belonged to the speciose fossil wood genus Laurinoxylon, we reviewed the literature and data from InsideWood on fossil and modern woods. As a result, we propose criteria for excluding a fossil Lauraceae wood from Laurinoxylon and list the species that should be excluded from this genus. The criteria (filters) proposed to exclude a genus from having relationships with Laurinoxylon are: A. Axial parenchyma features: A1. Marginal axial parenchyma, A2. Aliform to aliform-confluent paratracheal parenchyma. B. Ray features: B1. Rays higher than 1 mm, B2. Exclusively homocellular rays, B3. Rays more than 5 cells wide, B4. Rays storied. C. Porosity features: Ring-porous. D. Idioblasts: Absence of idioblasts. Based on the distribution of idioblasts, we recognize four groups in Laurinoxylon (Type 1 - with idioblasts associated only with ray parenchyma cells, Type 2a - with idioblasts associated with both ray and axial parenchyma, Type 2b - with idioblasts associated both with rays and present among the fibres, and Type 3 - with idioblasts associated with ray and axial parenchyma and also among the fibres) and list the extant genera with features of those groups. Such grouping helps with interpreting the relationships of fossil lauraceous woods with extant genera. We discuss the Oligocene–Miocene European species that belong to these Laurinoxylon groups, noting that some warrant reassignment to different genera or even families. Future studies are needed to determine whether new genera should be established to accommodate these species. We propose the new combination Cinnamomoxylon variabile (Privé-Gill & Pelletier) Mantzouka, Karakitsios, Sakala & Wheeler.