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Jamal Malik

Zusammenfassung

In the European context, literary salons of the 18th century are celebrated as important spaces for the evolution and development of the bourgeoisie. Patrons, among them sometimes educated and wealthy women, sponsored such salons. These venues, animated by poets, provided for the possibility to think anew and also to freely articulate this newness. Similar developments can be discerned in the major urban centers of Mogul India such as Delhi, Lucknow and Hyderabad, at a time when the empire toppled into a deep crisis under the absolutist emperor Aurangzeb (d. 1707), owing much to his system of fiefdom among other factors. Apocalypse was the mood of the day, but one could also find a heightened concern for morality and sensitivity, the cherishing of interpersonal relations and disclosure in literary and convivial circles. Mystics and literary figures from all social strata infused these literary salons with inwardness and self-criticism, thereby blending sensuality with virtue and reasoning. This can be traced with the help of vernacular languages coming into literary vogue and the emergence of this new salon culture. Examples for these reassessments are provided by poetry readings (mušāʿira), such as those by the Naqshbandi sufi, Mīr Dard (d. 1785) and his epigones; or in the metamorphosis of names or noms de plume (taḫalluṣ), such as the one known for Dard’s father, Nāṣir ʿAndalīb (d. 1758), his sobriquet being ʿAndalīb or “Nightingale”; but also in genres such as šahr-e ašūb and wāsoḫt. My contribution will reintroduce these literary fields on the basis of original Urdu texts. The aim is to excavate possible traces of an Indian-Islamic modernity buried under the weight of orientalisms, and to reconstruct their trajectories.

Malik, Jamal

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Islamische Gelehrtenkultur in Nordindien

Entwicklungsgeschichte und Tendenzen am Beispiel von Lucknow

Jamal Malik

This insightful volume treats the world of the learned classes in the region of Awadh, in Muslim North India, with its famous capital Lucknow, from the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries. It focusses on those circles which carried, promoted, and reflected acculturation and interference in traditional as well as colonial settings. Part I examines the qasbahs where the seeds are laid for the efflorescence of scholarship, connecting South Asia with the Middle East and Europe. Part II deals with the accommodation of Islamic religious culture in the newly-established territorial states in the 18th century. The last section studies the Learned Council of Islamic Scholars ( Nadwat al-‘Ulamā’) in Lucknow, its historical growth and internal set-up as well as its interaction with colonialists and traditionalists. The study is based on rich biographical and chronological accounts, narrative material, archival data, curricula and European reports.
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Islam in South Asia

A Short History

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Jamal Malik

Islamic South Asia has become a focal point in academia. Where did Muslims come from? How did they fare in interacting with Hindu cultures? How did they negotiate identity as ruling and ruled minorities and majorities? Part I covers early Muslim expansion and the formative phase in context of initial cultural encounter (app. 700-1300). Part II views the establishment of Muslim empire, cultures oscillating between Islamic and Islamicate, centralised and regionalised power (app. 1300-1700). Part III is composed in the backdrop of regional centralisation, territoriality and colonial rule, displaying processes of integration and differentiation of Muslim cultures in colonial setting (app. 1700-1930). Tensions between Muslim pluralism and singularity evolving in public sphere make up the fourth cluster (app. 1930-2002).
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Edited by Jamal Malik

Relationships between colonialists and the colonised peoples are often ambivalent – but always fascinating. This edited volume explores the issues of cultural reciprocity between Europeans and South Asians during the crucial period from 1760 to 1860. In doing so, prevailing assumptions about these complex relationships are examined.
Part I examines a variety of themes in reciprocal encounter, such as class structures, urban landscape, Anglo-Muslim cooperation and debates on indigenous values. Part II deals with the persons important to the process of reciprocity and discursive interdependence, such as orientalists, missionaries, Indian travellers. The texts, in the last section, focus on the changing and shifting identities, thereby revealing the complexity and hybridity of the imperial process.
The book is based on rich biographical and chronological accounts, narrative material and archival data, both in occidental and oriental languages.
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Jamal Malik

Globalization has been made responsible for a variety of (re)invented traditions with a trend toward a new religious foundation in and of societies. With Islamic proselytism having gone global, it may resemble religious resistance to the status quo, when pious Muslims instigate homogenizing daʿwa activities and attempt to endow them with moral obligations and normative superstructure. The proliferation of standards and fledgling processes of ideological framing are traceable in what is called fiqh al-daʿwa, which includes general theorizing and ostensibly legal reasoning on daʿwa. In reality, it is more of a missionary ideology given weight by being clothed in Islamic legal terminology. This paper investigates the fiqh of daʿwa in its global setting, with an emphasis on its radical Islamist articulations. It does so by examining fiqh al-daʿwa’s legally, or rather ideologically and morally, charged treatises. In this way, the article reconstructs the genealogy of this rather new genre, as well as its social composition, its ideational grounding, and its normative potential. The condensed forms and derivatives of fiqh of daʿwa will be documented by means of certain rules, methods, and strategies of Islamist ideologues and organizations, particularly the post-Huḍaybī Muslim Brotherhood.1