In: Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention
In: Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea
In: Jurisdiction over Ships
In: Ocean Law Debates
In: Science, Technology, and New Challenges to Ocean Law
In: Freedom of Navigation and Globalization
In: Ocean Law and Policy
Author: James Kraska


In recent years Freedom of Navigation (fon) operations have become a regular feature of US naval operations in the South China Sea, drawing attention to a once obscure national security initiative to ensure free and open uses of the seas. This contribution to the volume mines declassified US government correspondence and, in particular, a major National Security Council Study completed by the administration of President Carter, to explore the US rationale for creation of the fon program and assess its early implementation. The chapter helps form a clearer image of the creation of the fon program and how it was implemented in its first half-decade.

In: Cooperation and Engagement in the Asia-Pacific Region
In: Challenges of the Changing Arctic
Authors: James Kraska and Raul Pedrozo
International Maritime Security Law by James Kraska and Raul Pedrozo defines an emerging interdisciplinary field of law and policy comprised of norms, legal regimes, and rules to address today's hybrid threats to the global order of the oceans. Worldwide shipping commerce, fishing fleets, pleasure craft, and coastal states are exposed to the menace of offshore terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, piracy, smuggling, robbery, marine insurgency and anti-access threats. Land-based institutions and maritime constabulary forces operate within an increasingly integrated network that blends elements of humanitarian law, human rights law, criminal law, and law of the sea, with inspection regimes, commercial enterprise, and marine safety and environmental stewardship. The new authorities fuse together a global maritime partnership among states, international organizations and commercial interests to protect the maritime commons from the most dangerous risks and hazards.