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In: Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea
In: Science, Technology, and New Challenges to Ocean Law
In: Challenges of the Changing Arctic
In: Jurisdiction over Ships
In: Freedom of Navigation and Globalization
In: Ocean Law and Policy
In: Ocean Law Debates
In: Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention


In recent years Freedom of Navigation (fon) operations have become a regular feature of US naval operations in the South China Sea, drawing attention to a once obscure national security initiative to ensure free and open uses of the seas. This contribution to the volume mines declassified US government correspondence and, in particular, a major National Security Council Study completed by the administration of President Carter, to explore the US rationale for creation of the fon program and assess its early implementation. The chapter helps form a clearer image of the creation of the fon program and how it was implemented in its first half-decade.

In: Cooperation and Engagement in the Asia-Pacific Region