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  • Author or Editor: James L. Wescoat Jr. x
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Abstract

Laborers and draft animals played underexamined roles in building and operating the waterworks of Mughal gardens and landscapes. This article analyzes four sources of evidence about water-related work: Mughal paintings; historical texts on the political economy of Mughal waterworks; historical sources assessed in relation to modern estimates of human and animal energy needed to build and operate the waterworks; and historical sources considered in relation to the work of natural waters shaping land and society in material and cultural terms. Taken together, these four lines of inquiry provide a unified framework for research on Mughal waterworks and livelihoods.

Open Access
In: Journal of Material Cultures in the Muslim World