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Abstract

Die In-vitro-Fertilisation mit gespendeten Eizellen ist in der heutigen Tschechischen Republik auf dem Vormarsch. 99 % der Spenderinnen sind Tschechinnen, während etwa 85 % der Empfängerinnen Ausländerinnen sind. Der Beitrag erörtert die Motivation ausländischer Frauen, sich diesem Verfahren zu unterziehen, stützt sich auf die geltende tschechische Gesetzgebung und skizziert kurz die wichtigsten Themen der aktuellen ethisch-politischen Debatte. Eines von ihnen ist die Frage, wie die finanzielle Kompensation für die mit der Eizellspende verbundenen Kosten rechtlich geregelt werden soll. Der Text stellt auch den Regierungsvorschlag vor, die bestehende Gesetzgebung durch eine Novellierung zu ändern und dadurch die medizinische Dokumentation um wichtige Daten über Eizellspenderinnen zu erweitern.

In: Zeitschrift für medizinische Ethik
Who are the legislators and what are the products of the legislative process in China? How does a law come into being? What meaning should we ascribe to these legislative products from the perspective of legal certainty? Can we recognise a Chinese approach to or style of law-making? What technical legislative problems have Chinese jurists identified and what sorts of solutions to them are being considered? These are the questions which Law-making in the PRC attempts to solve.
The volume opens with papers on the historical perspective of law-making, on ideology and law-making, and on a comparison between the PRC's legal framework and the frameworks of other legal systems. Part II deals with various `Institutions and Actors' involved, and offers analyses of the National People's Congress, the State Council, departmental rule-making, local law-making, law-making in autonomous regions, public participation, and the proposed law on law-making by academics. Part III offers three `case studies' in which important areas of legal development are analysed from a law-making point of view. The selected areas are administrative law, contract law, and criminal law.

The accuracy of prediction of intramuscular fat content was evaluated using two ultrasound probes (5 MHz/64 mm and 3.5 MHz/172 mm). The study was carried out on 142 bulls (74 Slovak Spotted, 6 Pinzgauer, 22 Holstein, 20 Beef Simmental and 20 Charolais bulls). Ultrasound images of rib eye area were taken between 12th and 13th rib one week before slaughter. After slaughter, photographs of rib eye area were taken in order to determine level of marbling. Computer image analyses using a special software package and statistical analyses using SAS/STAT package were done. No statistically significant differences in level of marbling and intramuscular fat content were found between 5 MHz and 3.5 MHz probes. Correlation coefficients between level of marbling and ultrasound image values were 0.26 (5 MHz) and 0.25 (3.5 MHz). With Slovak Spotted bulls, correlations between SONO and MARB values ranged from 0.52 to 0.69 (3.5 MHz) and from 0.19 to 0.28 (5 MHz probe). The effect of ultrasound probe on intramuscular fat content and marbling prediction accuracy was not shown with whole data set considered. The possible influence of ultrasound probe used is shown with findings for Slovak Spotted bulls considered. The optimal performance for ultrasound machine ALOKA SSD-500 was proposed: 65% (5 MHz probe) and 80 - 90% (3.5 MHz probe).

In: Evaluation of carcass and meat quality in ruminants