The Muʿtazila was not an exclusively Muslim phenomenon, since their teachings were also adopted by medieval Jewish savants. In recent years, a number of Muʿtazilī works were rediscovered or substantially completed by adopting a comparative methodology, which was based on both Muslim and Jewish sources. This article deals with a lost work composed by qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār, entitled al-Jumal wa-l-ʿuqūd. I will give an overview of the sources in Zaydī and Karaite collections that provide us with a more detailed picture of the dissemination of the text. On the basis of quotations by later theologians, I will propose a hypothesis on the content of al-Jumal wa-l-ʿuqūd. I will then discuss a possible relationship between ʿAbd al-Jabbār’s text and a manuscript from the Firkovitch collection in the National Library of Russia, which has recently been identified as a work entitled Taʿlīq al-Jumal wa-l-ʿuqūd.
While Mutazilism had become marginalized in Sunni Islam by the VIth/XIIth century, the reception of Basran Mutazilī thought experienced a sudden rise among the Zaydīs of Yemen. Their Imams began officially supporting the transfer of Basran Mutazilī texts and doctrines to Yemen. As a result, an indigenous Basran Mutazilī school emerged and preserved numerous Mutazilī theological sources, which would otherwise have been lost. One of the most important representatives of this school was al-asan al-Raā (d. 584/1188). This article provides an outline of al-Raā’ biography and of his extensive body of works in order to show his importance for the spread of Basran Mutazilī thought among the Zaydī community.
Al-Ḥākim al-Ğišumī, auteur bahšamite et zaydite, principalement connu pour son œuvre exégétique, a composé plusieurs textes théologiques importants. Parmi ceux-ci figure une somme de théologie intitulée K. al-Taʾṯīr wa-l-muʾaṯṯir fī ʿilm al-kalām, laquelle somme nous est connue grâce à un manuscrit unique conservé au Yémen. La première partie de ce livre aborde le sujet de la causalité d’après l’approche muʿtazilite, et examine les diverses notions et catégories des causes. Présenté par son auteur comme une synthèse des idées des grands maîtres Abū ʿAlī l-Ğubbāʾī, Abū Hāšim al-Ğubbāʾī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Baṣrī et ʿAbd al-Ğabbār, ce texte semble être le plus ancien exposé systématique écrit par un muʿtazilite qui nous soit parvenu dans ce domaine.