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Abstract

Cet article traite des processus de transformation socio-économique dans la région de Zinder déclenchés par la construction de la raffinerie de pétrole depuis 2008. Alors que la plupart des gens associent au pétrole de grands espoirs d’enrichissement rapide, la dure réalité montre plutôt que la majorité des gens se plaignent au lieu d’être satisfaits de leur nouvelle situation. En se basant sur quatre domaines des changements socio-économique dans la région : (1) l’expropriation et l’indemnisation, (2) le travail dans l’industrie pétrolière, (3) la spéculation immobilière et foncière, et (4) les activités économiques connexes, il est montré que les processus de transformation socio-économique doivent toujours être compris dans leur interaction dialectique entre la ville et la campagne pour éviter les explications simplificatrices et bin5aires qui dominent encore la littérature populaire et académique sur le pétrole.

In: Oil-Age Africa
In: Oil-Age Africa

Abstract

In this chapter, we compare the repertoires of mobilization for urban political riots and rural armed insurgency in Niger. Starting from the assumption that political violence can be a form of labour rather than being based on conviction and ideology, we analyse how both “violence machines” (political riots) and “war machines” (armed insurgency) exploit the socioeconomically precarious situation of youth (particularly males) through material incentives and the exchange of (mis-)information via mobile communication devices. We argue that political protest and armed conflict in Niger bridge rural and urban spaces. Although the city is undeniably the natural environment for political protest – because blocking key infrastructure threatens to undermine economic activity, thus providing a powerful tool for making demands – and although armed resistance needs rural hinterlands as safe havens to escape the reach of state repression, we observe the mobilization of rural residents for urban protests and the mobilization of city dwellers for a life as rebel fighters in the bush. Today, mobile communication systems facilitate the rapid dissemination of mobilization messages across rural and urban spaces, while dissatisfaction and a latent anger against the state and its established elites provides fertile ground for machines of violence and war to prosper.

In: Rebellious Riots
Critical Reflections on Oil Politics, Resource Economies and Extractive Communities
Volume Editors: and
Following a wave of oil discoveries in Africa, Oil-Age Africa offers new perspectives and critical reflections on the prevalent academic discourses on oil in Africa. This collection brings together researchers from the social sciences to challenge simplified readings of the complex realities of oil politics, economies and societies through theoretical critique and ‘on the ground’ ethnographic methods.

Climate change highlights the need to understand the intricate ways societies are built on and for oil energy. Oil-Age Africa analyses the effects of oil production and the global energy structure, offering relevant insights and avenues for future research on oil.

Contributors
Helmut Asche, Joseph N. Mangarella, Immo Eulenberger, Harouna Abdoutan, Monica Skaten, Yorbana Seign-Goura, Laura Smith, James Van Alstine, Geertrui Vannoppen, Mahamidou Aboubacar Attahirou, Salissou Oubandoma, Jannik Schritt.