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Jarich Oosten and Frédéric Laugrand

Abstract

In this paper we focus on Pentecostal and Evangelical movements in Nunavik and Nunavut. Although these movements are quite modern, they combine old and new features in a variety of ways. First we present a brief overview of the most important movements and their history. Then we examine in more detail recent developments, notably the case of the healing the land rituals developed by the Canada Awakening Ministries with the collaboration of a group from Fiji. Finally we discuss some of the basic patterns characterizing these new Christian movements and explore to what extent structural patterns can be discerned in these movements. They claim to introduce discontinuity with the past as well as new forms of solidarity integrating modern ideologies in a Christian perspective, but we will see that the relation to land as well as connections to shamanism remain central issues in modern Inuit discourses and practices of Pentecostalism.

Frédéric Laugrand and Jarich Oosten

Abstract

This paper examines the dynamics of the representation of the “sea woman,” sometimes known as Sedna, among the Inuit of Northeastern Canada in myths, shamanic experiences, and modern artistic representations. The varying representations of the sea women are connected to shamanic practice. The sea woman does not have a clearly defined iconography; this lack of definition gave shamans some flexibility in giving versions of encounters with the sea women, and enables Inuit artists to utilize that lack of iconographic specificity in creating their sculptures today.

Frédéric Laugrand, Jarich Oosten and Xavier Blaisel

Abstract

The existence of Parousial movements in Northeast Canada has remained largely unnoticed in the literature on messianic movements. Yet many Parousial movements flourished among the Inuit of Northeast Canada in the first half of this century. Recently, Inuit elders have shown themselves willing to discuss these movements with the authors. Their information sheds important light on the nature of these movements. On the basis of the existing literature, archival sources and oral information of the elders a new appraisal of these movements can be made. Eleven Parousial movements, some very poorly documented are discussed by the authors. They argue that the Parousial movements can be considered as attempts to integrate Christianity in existing Inuit beliefs and practices, notably shamanism. These movements developed in areas outside direct missionary control, and their development informs us about patterns of leadership and competition in Inuit society. Most of these movements were short-lived and ended by Inuit themselves. The negative assessment of these movements by missionaries and secular authorities often resulted in a distorted picture of these movements that can be corrected with the help of the information of Inuit elders. The Parousial movements constituted an important chapter in the history of Inuit religion and played an important part in the acceptance of Christianity as the combination of Christianity and shamanism turned out to be unsuccessful.

Series:

Edited by Henry J.M. Claessen and Jarich Oosten

Eighteen authors from 10 countries offer an assessment of the role of ideology in the emergence and development of early states. In a comparative perspective the significance of ideology in the processes that led to formation of states in Europe, Africa, Meso-America and Polynesia is discussed by specialists in the fields of anthropology, history and archaeology. Special attention is given to subjects such as the concept of ideology, regional comparison, the reconstruction of ideologies on the basis of archaeological data, gender relationships, coercion, legitimacy, sacred kingship, and ideology and change (in an introductory chapter) and a concluding discussion.
The findings of this volume will not only be of interest to anthropologists, historians and archaeologists, but to all those interested in the complex interaction of ideological and political developments.

H.J.M. Claessen, Patrick Vinton Kirch, H.J.M. Claessen, Jarich O. Oosten, H.J. Duller, P.W. Preston, H.J. Duller, M. Stiefel, M. Grijns, Kirsten Hastrup, Simon Kooijman, Jelle Miedema, Adam Kuper, R.H. Barnes, C.L.J. Meer, Steven Piker, J. Miedema, Mark S. Mosko, David S. Moyer, Rodney Needham, Anke Niehof, Imke Swart, J.H.B. Ouden, R.S. Khare, Frank N. Pieke, Rubie S. Watson, Rien Ploeg, James A. Boon, Rien Ploeg, Durk Hak, Rien Ploeg, Nancy Hamblin, Rien Ploeg, Ladislav Holy, Ronald H. Poelmeijer, Lilly Eversdijk Smulders, Ype H. Poortinga, Dean Peabody, Karen Portier, Khin Thitsa, G.J. Abbink, Serena Nanda, Karen Portier, Signe Howell, Karen Portier, Maila Stivens, R. Ridder, Dennis Tedlock, R. Ridder, Dennis Tedlock, G. Roon, Dietmar Rothermund, Thilo C. Schadeberg, Günter Dabitz, L. Vroonhoven, Ger Roon, Wim Zanten and Nigel Phillips

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Prins; Festschrift on the occasion of his retirement from the Chair of Anthropology, University of Groningen, University of Groningen, 1984, 251 pp., ill., diagr., Ybeltje Kroes, Hans Schneymann (eds.) - Rien Ploeg, Ladislav Holy, Actions, norms and representations. Foundations of anthropological inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. VIII + 134 pp., Milan Stuchlik (eds.) - Rien Ploeg, Nancy L. Hamblin, Animal use by the Cozumel Maya, Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1984. 206 pp. - Ronald H. Poelmeijer, Lilly Eversdijk Smulders, Een jaar bij de yogiýs van India en Tibet, Deventer 1983. - Ype H. 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