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  • Author or Editor: Jean-Claude Schmitt x
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Abstract

The paper asks first the question of the place of the Bible and its use as Holy Book in Judaism and Christianity. An important difference is that there was practically no Jewish “theatre” until the end of the Middle Ages, contrarily to Christian monastic performances which first developed out of the tropes for Easter (10th C.), then became biblical dramas performed inside or outside the churches (ca. 1160) and later in the public urban space (14th–16th Passion plays and Mystères). Other questions: what does “performing the Bible” actually mean for the performers as well as for the spectators? How far can we speak of “representation”, “imitation”, “impersonation”? How far the spectators were “ambivalent” about the plays and more generally about images and arts? Did they have a sense of the “fictitious” nature of the play? These questions are important concerning the Jewish roles in the plays and the reactions of the spectators towards contemporary Jews.

In: Performing the Sacred: Christian Representation and the Arts
In: Gespenster und Politik

Abstract

The notion of imitation occupies a central place in the thinking of sociologists, historians and art historians. After examining several theoretical approaches, the author proposes to distinguish two modalities of imitation: one idealist (the imitation of an ideal model), the other objectivist (that of a material object). Medieval vocabulary traditionally hears the words imitatio or imitari in a rather idealistic sense, for example in sacramental theology (the mass as imitation of the Passion), in the typological tradition of “the figurative interpretation of reality” (Erich Auerbach) or in Christian spirituality (the Imitation of Jesus Christ by Thomas a Kempis). But between the thirteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century, the “objectivist” conception of imitation progressed by focusing on the singularity of observable and imitable material realities. This development concerns innovations in the plastic arts (Villard de Honnecourt), the rise of the likeness of portraiture, the birth of landscape painting, the success of the “mystery” theater. It benefits from the rediscovery of Aristotle’s Physica, but above all results from a cultural mutation of much greater magnitude: a transformation of Western ontology by the gradual passage from medieval analogism to modern naturalism (Ph. Descola).

In: Imitationen
Systematische Zugänge zu einem kulturellen Prinzip des Mittelalters
Imitation und Mimesis sind epochenübergreifende Kulturphänomene. Doch wie erkennt, analysiert oder bewertet man das Imitieren im Mittelalter? Der Band präsentiert unterschiedliche fachdisziplinäre Methoden und Ansätze und erläutert diese an einschlägigen Beispielen. Imitieren kann für das Mittelalter als bislang unterschätzte, höchst komplexe Kulturtechnik angesehen werden, deren Potential nicht nur darin lag, Traditionen zu konservieren, sondern durchaus Innovationen hervorzubringen.