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Europe and the Americas

State Formation, Capitalism and Civilizations in Atlantic Modernity

Jeremy Smith

This volume takes up current debates in comparative and historical sociology that deal with multiple modernities and civilizations. It does so through an examination of patterns of state formation, civilization and the development of capitalism in the interaction of European and American worlds over three centuries.
The early part of the argument explores cutting-edge theoretical debates around the nature of early modern formations. Sections on state formation, civilizational identities and capitalist development introduce new perspectives on both Europe and America. They bring into question classical images of Western expansion and modernization, providing an alternative picture of colonialism and inter-civilizational encounters. This book brings the Atlantic zone into rich fields of sociological thinking about civilizations and modernity.
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Geoffrey R. Smith, Jessica E. Rettig, Mallory Smyk, Maggie Jones, Genevieve Eng-Surowiec, Davit Mirshavili and Jeremy Hollis

Abstract

Predation by native and non-native predators on the eggs, embryos, and early stage tadpoles can affect the recruitment of offspring into a population. We examined the effects of native (Little Brown Mudbugs, Cambarus thomai; overwintered Rana tadpoles; Common Green Darner, Anax junius, larvae) and non-native (Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis) potential predators on the eggs, hatchlings, and early tadpoles of the Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans). The predators had no effect on survivorship or hatching of L. clamitans eggs. However, tadpole survivorship was significantly reduced by dragonfly larvae and crayfish, but not G. affinis or the overwintered ranid tadpoles. Our observation that invertebrates consumed Green Frog tadpoles while vertebrates did not is consistent with palatability contributing to the tadpoles’ susceptibility to different predators. Our results therefore suggest Green Frog tadpoles, but not eggs or embryos, from some populations may be subject to differential predation by invertebrate and vertebrate predators.