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Recent instructional theories in VET focus on realistic learning tasks as the driving force for learning, and simultaneously aim at a greater flexibility so that individual needs and interests of learners can be taken into account. Little is yet known about the systematic development of such curricula. This chapter starts out with a description of the main assumptions underlying the use of realistic tasks in competence-based VET. Then, the four-component instructional design model (4C/ID-model) is described as a way to organize competence-based curricula and to distinguish different levels of flexibilisation. At the highest level of flexibilisation, on-demand education allows learners to plan their own learning trajectories by selecting their own learning tasks. The protocol portfolio scoring (PPS) is described as a systematic method to gather assessment results over learning tasks. It provides the basis for digital development portfolios, containing all information necessary to give learners advice on their process of task selection.

In: VET Boost: Towards a Theory of Professional Competencies
In: Avoiding Simplicity, Confronting Complexity