Jiabin Zhu and Shaoxue Liu

In the context of internationalization of higher education in China, this essay analyzes some inherent differences between the stem disciplines and humanities disciplines when it comes to the internationalization of curriculum and implementation. With a focus on the challenges facing the internationalization of the liberal arts, or humanities disciplines, a functional 3M model, that is, the internationalization of “Mind,” “Method,” and “Medium”, was proposed to address different aspects of the internationalization process. Moreover, we proposed multiple strategies that could possibly promote the professional development of faculty members along the three specific dimensions, aligning the strategies with the working definitions within each dimension of the 3M model.

China’s Higher Education in Global Perspective

Leader or Follower in the ‘World-Class’ Movement?


Marijk van der Wende and Jiabin Zhu

Zhu Jiabin, Hu Yu, Liu Qunqun and Monica F. Cox

Perry’s theory has demonstrated usefulness in understanding students’ epistemological development and the implications for educational practices. It depicts the development of adults’ thinking in four stages: Dualism, Multiplicity, Relativism, and Commitment within Relativism. Challenges exist in large sample studies due to the lack of appropriate instruments that can represent the stages, in particular Multiplicity and Relativism. This challenge is of unique importance because the transition from Multiplicity to Relativism signifies the most dramatic change in thinking development. To map the epistemological development profile of Chinese engineering students on a large scale, this work re-constructed and validated a survey using Perry’s theory. We tested the survey through content and structural validation. Content validation was performed by collecting ratings from eight external content experts. Structural validation was accomplished through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 621 Chinese engineering students. This survey can be useful for understanding Chinese engineering students’ epistemological development.