Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a serious health concern across the globe. Despite its non-fatal character, it accounts for affecting millions of people across the world and is deemed responsible to affect their quality of life and put a significant economic burden. In the current study, we aimed to assess the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of ellipticine (ETC) against AR using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic rhinitis. The ETC was administered to mice via intra-peritoneal route after suspending in 5% CMC after sensitization by OVA. Results of the study suggested that ETC causes a significant reduction the nose rubs as compared to disease control. A significant reduction in the serum level of histamine, IgG1, TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-2, and IL-6 was found in ETC treated group in a dose-dependent manner as compared to OVA challenged mice. It also reduces eosinophils in BALF of AR mice. In western blot analysis, the expression of aberrantly activated COX-2 and NF-ĸB found significantly reduced in ETC treated group due to inhibition of TLR-4 and caspase-1 as compared to disease-control mice. ETC showed significant interaction with residues of the active site of COX-2 and NF-ĸB. Collectively, our results indicated that ETC can be used to improve present therapeutic strategies against AR.
Cytoplasm with great structural details was found in a fossil trunk of Paraphyllanthoxylon from the Eocene of Hainan, China. The cytoplasmic remains were found in the bark tissue, and included a subcellular structure resembling a nucleus seen in a well-preserved fossilized cell. This observation may imply that cytoplasm is common in the fossil world, and calls for more attention from scientists.