Since 1978 China has implemented a series of educational policies for shaping rural compulsory education in order to improve its quality and competitiveness. This short article takes a macro perspective to review the rural compulsory education policies in contemporary China. Specifically, the macro perspective concentrates on examining the historical urbanization process of basic education in rural areas and the four stages of compulsory educational development in these regions. The article suggests that China has made tremendous contributions on closing the rural and urban gaps in recent years, but challenges remain to be solved.
Since 2015, both the educational policymakers and practitioners in China passionately have sought to raise the educational quality, especially in Chinese rural schools. Series of significant and instructive reforms were designed to boost educational quality comes from China, where in 2015 the central government enacted an overwhelming educational policy to reform rural teacher development. China’s politics on reforming rural teacher development differ from similar reforms elsewhere in Asia countries due to the strong role of centralized top-down power representatives, various types of policy formation pathways and the final consulted settlement with the national and local teacher committees. This study also emphasizes the discussion on the complicated roles of distributive education politics and policy networks in contemporary Chinese education system.
Recently China has miraculously transformed itself from a learner in the 20th century to a re-rising leader of educational excellence. The enduring policy endeavors over the past few decades have largely enabled China as the largest educational system in the world move to a recently emerging status as a global leader of educational improvement, recognized and appreciated with admiration by many traditionally advanced countries. The two authors intend to offer a snapshot of the China miracle of educational development in terms of public policies since the turn of the 21st century. With a Multi-Flows Approach constructed from Csikszentmihalyi’s idea of “flow”, this paper investigates the complexity and dynamism of three policy streams, i.e., basic education, teacher education and higher education. It is concluded from the literature review that central to China’s key policy actions in recent decades are four core themes, i.e., equality in terms of a democratic mission of education for every citizen, quality in terms of individual and social productivity, efficiency as a national priority based on practicality, and rejuvenation of the state for nation-building and global status. Educational policy development in China since the new century is thus examined with economic, political, cultural and international flows, each presenting a colorful jigsaw puzzle that is not easily tessellated by other flows. The authors argue that the different focus of flows and beyond can benefit policy communities in the world with varied directions for educational change resulting in significant improvement while none of them should be seen as a single force in solely shaping educational policy development without the convergence of other forces. This implies that for any public policy in education policymakers, implementers and other stakeholders must ensure a comprehensive consideration of the interdependent, converging effects of these forces to prioritize and maximize their outcomes, which may be easily missed by any single force of them. The implications from this paper sheds new light on policy studies in education in China and globally, and the learner-provider dynamism of educational development in a post-colonial context.
The China Champion Program (CCP) is a special graduate program of the Beijing Sport University. It provides a select group of China’s elite athletes with one year of time to study in a major university in the United States focusing on English language training, science, education, social-culture events, and professional skills pursuant to their own fields. Since the inaugural class of 2010, six classes of CCP have graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. The major financial source of the program comes from the China Scholarship Council, providing international travel and living cost, whereas the hosting universities and local communities has offered generous support for their language training, courses and social interactions. The athletes and coaches graduated from the CCP have expressed overwhelmingly positive feedback and appreciation. Many of the graduates have achieved their career goals and attributed their accomplishments to the experiences gained from the CCP. Although the CCP has provided China’s top athletes with an opportunity for their post-competitive professional development, the population who received this benefit is still small and limited to the top tier. This unique model of supplementary education for China’s athletes may reflect some interesting characteristics of the Chinese educational system and the contribution an American university can made in this collaboration.
This paper builds an externality-based model with physical and R&D capital, proves the linearity of technology functions, and derives two measures of spillovers from the relative differences between social and private rates of return. China's regional empiric studies exhibit a reverse direction of spillovers between foreign invested firms and local economy and provide an estimation of the spillover measures of between 13% and 18%.
Analysis on structural changes in macroeconomic data series has been the key issue for studying data quality. This paper studies the structural changes in China’s 36 macroeconomic time series using joint estimation model, and we find out the characteristics and movement pattern for the outliers. Our results show that most outliers show up more or less in groups, indicating that there is a significant correlation between them. The isolated outliers are not the main characteristic of China’s macroeconomic time series. Nearly all the original series contain the obvious skewness and kurtosis; hence, the hypothesis of normality is significantly rejected. Most original and outlier correction series show the non-autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) characteristic, but the p value for ARCH2, ARCH4, and ARCH8 is very different.
Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in improving the reading literacy of students, especially reading processes. However, students in Hong Kong and the US demonstrated a substantial performance gap in reading proficiency. Using the data from Progress in International Reading Literacy (PIRLS) 2011, this study examines whether and to what extent four computer-based reading instructional activities influence students’ performance in reading processes central to reading for interest and acquiring and using information in Hong Kong and the US. It found that computer-based reading activities are associated with students’ literacy performance in different ways in the two places. In particular, the more often Hong Kong students used the computer to read, the lower the reading achievement in all reading processes measured. However, in the US context, using the computer to write is positively associated with students’ reading scores in all reading processes while using software is negatively related to their reading performance in using all the reading processes.