Ruehmaphelenchus thailandae n. sp., isolated from deciduous dunnage from Thailand, is described and figured. The new species is characterised by the relatively stout body (a = 28.6 and 27.6 for males and females, respectively), three lines in the lateral field, spicules relatively small (12.0-13.3 μm) with weakly developed condylus and rostrum, bursa absent, vulva located at 79.5% of body length, vulval lips slightly swollen, length of post-uterine branch more than half of vulva to anus distance, female tail conoid, ca two anal body diam. long and with a broad terminal process up to 12 μm long. The new species is the third known for the genus. It can be distinguished from R. martinii and R. asiaticus mainly by the different shape and size of its spicules and different shape of the female tail terminus. The separate species status is also supported by ITS-RFLP pattern. Additional measurements of paratype R. asiaticus are appended.
Bursaphelenchus paraburgeri sp. n., isolated in Ningbo, China, from packaging wood of deciduous trees imported from Malaysia is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a=32-37), lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located anterior to the metacorpus, vulva at 75% of total body length, presence of a thick vulval flap in lateral view, post-uterine branch about two-thirds of the vulva-anus distance long, female tail long and conical (c=15), tapering to a finely rounded or bluntly pointed terminus, spicules have only weakly developed rostrum and condylus, and cross-striped in their central part, three pairs of ventro-sublateral papillae (one pair precloacal, two pairs postcloacal just anterior to the bursal flap and adjacent to each other) and a single precloacal midventral papilla. The new species belongs to the africanus group of the genus Bursaphelenchus and is most similar to B. burgermeisteri and B. obeche, from which it can be distinguished, as well as from other Bursaphelenchus species, by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and sequencing results.
Ruehmaphelenchus digitulus sp. n., isolated from coniferous packaging wood from Taiwan, is described and figured. The new species is characterised by a relatively stout body with a = 28.0 (23.7-31.3) and 27.0 (22.9-32.7) for male and female, respectively, three lines in the lateral field, spicules relatively small (chord = 17.0-19.2 μm; arc = 13.8-16.6 μm) with weakly developed condylus and rostrum, bursa absent, vulva positioned at ca 80% of body length, vulva flap absent, vulval lips slightly protruding, post-uterine branch extending slightly over half of vulva to anus distance, and tail conoid, ca 2-3 anal body diam. long, with terminal process 7-10 μm long. The new species is the fourth known for the genus. It can be distinguished from R. martinii, R. asiaticus and R. thailandae mainly by the different shape and size of the spicules and the different shape and length of the female tail terminus. The separate species status is also supported by ITS-RFLP pattern and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial SSU ITS1/2 and partial LSU sequences.
A small-scale, but highly-stylized dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model is estimated by the maximum likelihood method using Chinese quarterly data. Model specifications and parameter equalities between various competing model variants are addressed by formal statistical hypothesis tests, while implications for business cycle fluctuations are evaluated via a variance decomposition experiment, second-moments matching, and some out-of-sample forecast exercises. It is highlighted that the monetary authority takes an aggressive stance to the current inflation pressure (there is a significant lagged response), while leaving less attention to changes in aggregate output. Variance decomposition reveals that large percentages of variations in real and nominal variables are explained by the highly volatile preference and potential output shock, respectively. When nominal and real frictions as well as additional shocks are included, overall our estimated model can successfully reproduce the stylized facts from actual data of Chinese business cycles and frequently can even outperform those forecasts from an unconstrained VAR.
Bursaphelenchus arthuroides sp. n. is described and figured from pine packaging wood originating in Brazil, and inspected in Ningbo harbour, P. R. China. The new species clearly belongs to the fungivorus group. It is characterised by four lines in the lateral field; spicules medium sized (15-17 μm), dorsal part distinctly sclerotised, with a high rounded condylus and a blunted pointed rostrum in the middle position, capitulum with a shallow depression, the posterior third of the dorsal limb ventrally bent, distal end broadly rounded without cucullus; the shape of the female tail conical and slim, posterior third distinctly ventrally bent with a finely pointed terminus; vulval lips slightly protruding but not forming a vulval flap and post-uterine sac extending for about half the vulva-anus distance. Species status is supported by ITS-RFLP patterns and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial LSU sequences, ITS1/2 and partial LSU sequences, which revealed that B. arthuroides sp. n. is closest to B. arthuri. Propagation tests also confirmed that the new species is parthenogenetic.
Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is described and figured. The new species was isolated from pine packaging wood from Taiwan and inspected in Ningbo harbour, China, in 2009. Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is characterised by the lip region lacking a clear constriction separating it from the body contour, stylet relatively short (12-17 μm) and without basal knobs, and presence of three lines in the lateral field. The female post-uterine sac is less than a body diam. long, the rectum and anus are absent and the tail is conoid with a sharply pointed terminus. The male tail is conoid and has a hair-like mucron (0.5-2.5 μm), the spicules are mitten-shaped, 12.5-14.4 μm long (chord) and are smoothly curved with a prominent rounded condylus, prominent pointed rostrum, and broadly rounded distal end. There are three pairs of subventral caudal papillae. Ektaphelenchus taiwanensis sp. n. is similar to E. betulae, E. josephi, E. joyceae, E. prolobos, E. propora and E. tuerkorum from which it can be separated by a combination of various morphometric and morphological characters. The D2D3 LSU and partial SSU region sequences were analysed and aligned using ClustalW implemented in MEGA version 4.0. Phylogenetic trees were generated with the Neighbour Joining (NJ) method using the Tajima-Nei distance option. The feeding habit of the new species is briefly discussed.
Deladenus prorsus n. sp., isolated from dunnage wood originating from Malaysia and intercepted in Ningbo port, P.R. China, is described and illustrated. The dunnage wood material appeared to have holes resembling the typical exit holes of wood-boring insects and have associated blue stain. The new species is characterised by the presence of both the mycophagous and infective forms (Deladenus consists of mycetophagous-only forms and those with known female dimorphism), the body length of 814 (670-1147) and 898 (812-979) μm for mycetophagous males and females, respectively, and 1129 (1114-1352) μm for the infective female, and by the very anterior position of the excretory pore which is situated at 30.7 (24.4-33.0), 30.6 (25.4-35.6) and 37.9 (27.3-39.7) μm for the mycetophagous males and females and infective females, respectively, and the distance that the excretory pore is located anterior to the hemizonid which is 82 (77-90), 74 (54-92) and 86 (64-106) μm for the mycetophagous males and females and infective females, respectively. The diagnostic value of the excretory pore and the hemizonid of the species of the genus are discussed. The ribosomal DNA ITS region was sequenced and analysed.
Bursaphelenchus koreanus sp. n., isolated in Ningbo, P.R. China, from packaging wood made from Pinus sp. imported from South Korea, is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a = 28-35), lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located at level of, or slightly posterior to, median bulb, vulva at 75% of total body length, presence of a distinct vulval flap in lateral view, post-uterine branch extending for ca two-thirds of vulva-anus distance, female tail conical and ventrally bent with slightly pointed, irregular or roughened terminus (c′ = 4.1), spicules large and arcuate (27-34 μm) with pointed rostrum, cucullus visible but sometimes reduced to a small blunt extension. The new species belongs to the xylophilus group and is most similar to B. luxuriosae and B. paraluxuriosae. It is distinguished from other Bursaphelenchus species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and sequencing results.
Aphelenchoides rotundicaudatus n. sp. was isolated from packaging wood from South Korea imported to Ningbo harbour, China. Specimens were collected directly from wood samples using the Baermann method. Multiplication on Botryotinia fuckeliana failed. The new species has a body length of 364-509 μm (males) and 371-493 μm (females). The cuticle is weakly annulated and there are four lines in the lateral field. The stylet is 8-9 μm long and has small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located ca one body diam. anterior to median bulb. Spicules are small (10-13 μm), apex and rostrum rounded and only slight offset. The male tail has six (2 + 2 + 2) caudal papillae. Both male and female tails are cylindrical with a broadly rounded terminus, often with a small region of thickened cuticle or a blunt peg ca 1 μm long, particularly in the female. The new species belongs to the Group 1 category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analyses based on full length ITS, partial LSU and SSU of rDNA confirmed its status as a new species.