This paper studies several travel accounts featuring transcultural and transnational experiences in the Yunnan-Burma borderlands where the British, Chinese, French and various indigenous peoples encountered each other, including Yangwentun xiaoyin, an anonymous “ballad” circulated in late Qing and Republican Yunnan, Ai Wu’s (1904–92) early fiction based upon his wanderings in Yunnan and Burma from 1925 to 1931, and Xiao Qian’s (1910–99) utopian “travelogue” featuring a European couple’s futuristic travel to the area. These writings illustrate the intersection of issues of nation, ethnicity, and gender, which are intertwined with the discourse of barbarism: On the one hand, their authors often express anxiety over threats to China’s dominance in this area; on the other, frequently resorting to the discourse of barbarism, these accounts, tinged with Sino-centrism, often exoticize and barbarize other cultures, particularly indigenous groups. The eroticized and racialized female body constitutes a privileged site of representation in these writings: On the one hand, travel writings often make a distinction between Han Chinese women and indigenous women, treating the latter as exotic, seductive, dangerous, and/or primitive; on the other hand, as the need to build a strong, modernized multi-ethnic nation became increasingly urgent, Republican authors began to “universalize” the female body, Chinese or indigenous, treating both as threatened and exploited by the Western “newcomer,” and thus are (potential) allies sharing a nationalist, anti-imperialist cause.
Maomao Zhang, Guang Jie Zhao, Bo Liu, Tuo He, Juan Guo, Xiaomei Jiang and Yafang Yin
Pterocarpus santalinus, listed in CITES Appendix II, is an endangered timber species as a result of illegal harvesting due to its high value and commercial demand. The growing demand for P. santalinus and timbers with the morphologically similar Pterocarpus tinctorius has resulted in confusion as well as identification problems. Therefore, it is of vital importance to explore reliable ways to accurately discriminate between P. santalinus and P. tinctorius. In this study, the method of direct analysis in real time and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (DART-FTICR-MS), combined with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to extract chemical information from xylarium wood specimens and to explore the feasibility of distinguishing these two species. Significant differences were observed in their DART-FTICR-MS spectra. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed the highest prediction, with an accuracy of 100%. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of authenticating wood types using DART-FTICR-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.
Jie Yu, Guicai Du, Ronggui Li, Li Li, Zi Li, Changjing Zhou, Congcong Chen and Daosen Guo
Bacterial volatiles represent an important source for new natural nematicidal compounds that may be developed as novel nematicidal agents to control plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, two marine bacteria, Pseudoalteromonas marina strain H-42 and Vibrio atlanticus strain S-16, were isolated from seawater and the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians), respectively, collected from the subtidal beds at Qingdao, China. In vitro bioassays indicated that culture supernatants of the two bacteria displayed strong nematicidal activities with corrected mortalities of more than 93% after 24 h exposure against the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Maximal nematicidal activity was exhibited by culture supernatants of the two marine bacteria incubated at 15-20°C for 3 days in Zobell 2216E medium prepared with 100% seawater and initial pH 6.0-7.0, inoculating 19-h-old cultures. Through analysis using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the volatiles produced by the two bacteria were shown to contain mainly dimethyl disulphide, benzaldehyde, dimethyl trisulphide, tert-butylamine, acetone and dimethylamine, N-(diisopropylphosphino)methyl-. Results from nematicidal assay using pure commercial compounds instead of the candidate volatiles demonstrated that the four volatile compounds, dimethyl trisulphide (LC90 = 0.060 mmol l−1), benzaldehyde (LC90 = 0.309 mmol l−1), dimethyl disulphide (LC90 = 0.162 mmol l−1) and tert-butylamine (LC90 = 0.366 mmol l−1), showed strong nematicidal activities against PWN. This is the first report on the nematicidal activity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from marine microorganisms. This study indicates that the nematicidal VOC produced by marine bacteria are potential substitutes for current chemical control options of pine wilt disease caused by PWN which greatly threatens global forest resources.