Yenching University, one of the most influential institutions in Chinese education in the first half of the twentieth century, also was emblematic of Sino-American cultural interchanges. Its development in the late 1910s and the 1920s coincided with a strong upsurge in national sentiment and anti-Christian movements in China. When the Communist victory and the Korean War brought patriotic anti-American feelings to a peak, the university was deeply shaken and was forced to close its doors. Forty years after its closure, Yenching’s name still arouses memories and fierce unresolved controversies. Both strong critics and defenders of the school need to include the Yenching experience in any discussion of cultural activities between the United States and China in the twentieth century. Yenching is more than a historical interlude, for the Yenching experience sheds light on issues that may influence the future of educational and cultural interactions in Sino-American relations.
In recent years general education in Chinese universities has gone through rapid growth, which has led scholars to reflect on the motivations which underpin its current and future development. This paper establishes a framework based on the size of the universities together with whether the motivation is idealism or empiricism. This framework forms three typologies of general education in China, particularly from the perspective of curriculum design and student involvement. Three cases that each represent one of the three typologies are analyzed to depict the detailed characteristics. The main conclusion of the paper is that general education in its essence is an idealistic pursuit of a permanent goal, while in reality it is resource-dependent and rooted in historical conditions. China’s case studies provide a vivid example that general education reform starts with practical approaches of offering selective courses or building pilot zones and then by moderately increasing its scale and coverage, moving towards idealism across the spectrum. The key principals during the long journey are to avoid conformism, encourage innovations and maintain diversity.
This paper is based on the research project funded by the Ford Foundation, on Gender Analysis of the Textbooks and Teaching Materials in K-9 Schools and Informal Adults’ Literacy Learning. It first explains from the theoretical perspective, the social-cultural meaning of gender and the relationship of education (schooling) with human gender socialization. Then it gets into the real world of schools and classroom teaching (learning). By using a variety of methodologies, textbooks and interaction between teachers and student in classrooms is analyzed from the perspective of gender. It shows how gender culture is transferred and reproduced through textbook learning and interpersonal exchanges.
The paper uses macro-causal analysis combined with empirical data analysis to illustrate how Chinese scholars in higher education (he) have adapted the concept of “student engagement” and indigenize the instrument of the National Survey of Student Engagement (nsse), with the aim of revealing college teaching/learning activities and understanding the learning processes of Chinese students in he. The paper explains why and how the China College Student Survey (ccss) was developed by the research team in the Institute of Education (ioe), Tsinghua University, using the nsse as a basis, with the help of both domestic and foreign scholars. The paper analyzes data collected nationwide in 2012, under the framework of four trends influencing he in China. Cases are also studied in the paper illustrating the learning behaviors of college students, as well as the macro-level driving forces in a more general context.
This paper outlines the rationales shaping the papers presented in this issue of the International Journal of Chinese (IJCE). To provide context for the contributions, it looks at policy contexts, institutional developments, major guiding research projects, and various engagement platforms. The papers are reviewed in terms of their implications for shaping the future of higher education evaluation and success.
This issue collects six papers which investigate ongoing challenges and developments in Chinese higher education. It publishes papers from emerging researchers who chart contemporary directions in research and practice relating to institutional governance and philanthropy, the changing identity of university leaders and teachers, the formation of liberal arts and business studies curriculum. The papers focus on education in China and abroad, and offer cross-national and intercultural perspectives of high relevance in a changing world.
In this article we introduce the five papers published in this issue of the International Journal of Chinese Education (IJCE). We begin by discussing complexities shaping the analysis of education, then turn to each paper’s nature and contributions. The article concludes by introducing revised IJCE editorial arrangements.