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Author: Jinho Park


There are numerous verbal endings and periphrastic constructions in Korean which express modal meanings and contain evidential and/or mirative meaning components in addition. I present some representative cases of them, and discuss the status of these evidential and/or mirative meaning components in the semantic representation. In so doing, I want to show the usefulness of the concepts of evidentiality and mirativity in describing the differences among modal elements in Korean.

The first case to consider is the so-called exclamative endings -kwuna and -ney. These have mirativity as their core meaning components, but they differ in evidentiality. -kwuna does not constrain the source of information, whereas -ney cannot express information obtained through hearsay. Whether -ney can be used to express information obtained through inference is not so clear, as there is evidence for both positions. It is certain that ney- is more constrained than -kwuna in expressing inference. -kwuna brings the inferential process into relief, whereas -ney suggests an immediate response without so much thinking.

The second element to consider is the pre-final ending -te-. -te- expressed past imperfective in Middle Korean, but due to the emerging past element -ess-, -te- came to have more meaning components in addition to the tense meaning of past. -te- in the non-adnominal positions in Modern Korean expresses information obtained newly in the past. This meaning component can be described as mirativity in the past. In relation to evidentiality, -te- cannot express information obtained through hearsay, but can express information obtained through direct perceptual experience or speculation/introspection/reasoning.

The third case to consider is -keyss- and -ul kes-i-. Both of them can express future tense, intention or conjecture. Here I concentrate on the conjecture use. -keyss- expresses a conjecture from inference based on perceptual information, whereas -ul kes-i- expresses a conjecture from reasoning based on general knowledge/assumption. They differ in mirativity also. -keyss- tends to be used to express newly obtained information, whereas -ul kes-i- does not.

Various verbal endings and periphrastic constructions in addition to the above cases can be described using the concepts of evidentiality and mirativity.

In: Evidentials and Modals
Volume Editors: Chungmin Lee and Jinho Park
Evidentials and Modals offers an in-depth account of the meaning of grammatical elements representing evidentiality in connection to modality, focusing on theoretical/formal perspectives by eminent pioneers in the field and on recently discovered phenomena in Korean evidential markers by native scholars in particular. Evidentiality became a hot topic in semantics and pragmatics, trying to see what kind of evidential justification is provided by evidentials to support or be related to the ‘at-issue’ prejacent propositions. This book aims to provide a deeper understanding of such evidentiality in discourse contexts in a broad range of languages such as American Indian, Korean and Japanese, Turkish and African languages over the world. In addition, an introduction to the concept of evidentiality and theoretical perspectives and recent issues is also provided.
In: Evidentials and Modals
In: Evidentials and Modals
In: Evidentials and Modals


Here, the symbiotic palaemonid shrimp Hamodactylus boschmai is recorded from Korean waters for the first time, based on specimens collected from different invertebrate hosts by trimix diving at depths of between 45 and 60 m in Jejudo Island. This species can readily be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a distinct supraorbital tooth, the proximal segment of the antennular peduncle having a single tooth on the distolateral margin, the presence of a denticulate lamina along the entire cutting edge of the fingers of the first pereiopod chela, and the chela of the second pereiopods having a strongly hooked tip on the movable finger. An illustrated description, colour photographs, and a comparison of partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences are provided.

In: Crustaceana