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Authors: Jiyoung Kim and Eun Mee Kim

This paper examines the development of South Korea's semiconductor industry from its inception in the 1960s to the present, focusing on erosion of the developmental state and changes in the state-business relationship. The semiconductor industry in South Korea is another showcase of South Korea’s remarkable economic development in the 20th century. However, showing that it was not the state sector, but the private business groups that took the initiatives and played a leading role in the development of the semiconductor industry in South Korea, the paper challenges the developmental state theory's contention that the developmental state was most pronounced in South Korea even among its peers in East Asian newly industrializing countries.

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In: Asian International Studies Review
Authors: Tae-Hyung Kim and Jiyoung Kim

Recognizing that few scholars have explored the foreign policy of non-major powers, in this paper, we explore the patterns of non-major powers' foreign policy through a historical comparison of Korea and Poland. Despite substantial differences, the modern histories of Korea and Poland share significant similarities due mainly to their geographic locations between two great powers: Korea between China and Japan, and Poland between Germany and Russia. Their unfavorable locations have constantly forced the two nations to adjust and accommodate to changing external environments they cannot control. Through this comparative case study of Korea and Poland, we also highlight the limitations of the existing realist approach in explaining foreign policy behaviors of non-major powers.

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In: Asian International Studies Review

This paper examines the political economy of development assistance in sub-Saharan African countries and South Korea focusing on the importance of good governance and domestic policies in a successful management and utilization of development aid. South Korea, along with Malaysia, has been widely recognized as one of the successful cases where foreign aid actually led to a significant level of economic development. From one of the major recipient nations and the poorest countries, South Korea, in about 40 years, has emerged as a donor nation with the 12th largest economy in the world. Comparatively, despite international efforts to help Africans out of their economic and political malaise, there has been a lack of visible progress in sub-Saharan African nations as far as changing the lives of the people. In the paper, we argue that weak institutional and political structures dominated by autocrats and democrats that practice illiberal politics are the main cause of poor development policies in sub-Saharan Africa. lt is weak institutional structures that continue to undermine the efficient use of foreign aid in the interest of the people. In this context, we examine political factors that contributed to a successful management of development aid in South Korea, and extract some lessons and policy suggestions from the South Korean case for sub-Saharan African countries.

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In: Asian International Studies Review

The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of prompts for scientific reasoning on students’ thinking processes in dinosaur exhibits at the Gwacheon National Science Museum in Seoul, Korea. First, students visited the exhibitions without any prompts and were asked to explain what they saw and understood. Then, we provided questions and cues as prompts related to the exhibits and asked the students to revise their explanations. Fourteen third and fourth grade students participated in this study and explored the exhibits either alone or in a group. Dialogues between students and researchers were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Without prompts, students were able to describe only the information of exhibits and their prior knowledge, and failed to link the exhibits, labels, and previous knowledge to their explanations. On the other hand, when either questions or cues were provided, they were able to connect the exhibit information to their prior knowledge through inferential thinking. Prompts functioned as cognitive supports, which facilitated students’ reasoning by encouraging students to recall and confirm their prior knowledge, analogize using related knowledge, and consider various points of view through reflection. These additional supports were necessary to complement the exhibits’ limitations, and to help students understand the exhibits in science museums meaningfully.

In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development

The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of prompts for scientific reasoning on students’ thinking processes in dinosaur exhibits at the Gwacheon National Science Museum in Seoul, Korea. First, students visited the exhibitions without any prompts and were asked to explain what they saw and understood. Then, we provided questions and cues as prompts related to the exhibits and asked the students to revise their explanations. Fourteen third and fourth grade students participated in this study and explored the exhibits either alone or in a group. Dialogues between students and researchers were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Without prompts, students were able to describe only the information of exhibits and their prior knowledge, and failed to link the exhibits, labels, and previous knowledge to their explanations. On the other hand, when either questions or cues were provided, they were able to connect the exhibit information to their prior knowledge through inferential thinking. Prompts functioned as cognitive supports, which facilitated students’ reasoning by encouraging students to recall and confirm their prior knowledge, analogize using related knowledge, and consider various points of view through reflection. These additional supports were necessary to complement the exhibits’ limitations, and to help students understand the exhibits in science museums meaningfully.

In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development

We investigated the demographic history of Trinorchestia longiramus Jo, using the nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 277 individuals collected from eight Korean populations. From the low haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in all populations, a neutrality test, and mismatch distribution analysis, the species appears to have recently experienced a prolonged or severe demographic bottleneck. Pairwise population F ST estimates and AMOVA [= Analysis of Molecular Variance] results showed that substantial differentiation is present between the southern and eastern populations. The population structure of T. longiramus may have been influenced by glacial population extinctions and interglacial colonization during the Pleistocene ice-ages.

In: Crustaceana

Summary

Dokdo Island has a unique biodiversity that has been preserved as a natural monument. Although the biodiversity of Dokdo has been investigated, little information is available regarding the nematodes. The diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes was investigated using both ITS and D2-D3 sequences. Nematodes extracted from 59 rhizosphere soil samples were morphologically identified as belonging to eight genera: Geocenamus, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Pratylenchoides and Xiphinema. Further, nucleotide sequences were determined from 85 individuals of different genera for species diagnosis. We identified 13 species, including three species of the genus Pratylenchus (P. crenatus, P. kumamotoensis and P. neglectus), Helicotylenchus sp. 1, Rotylenchulus sp. 1, Paratylenchus nanus, Heterodera trifolii, Heterodera spp., Pratylenchoides ritteri, Geocenamus sp. 1, Geocenamus sp. 2, Xiphinema brevicollum and Xiphinema sp. 1. The dominant plant-parasitic nematode on Dokdo was P. crenatus, which was found in 25.4% of the samples. Our study provides important information about the biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes on Dokdo Island.

In: Nematology