Oepke Noordmans, the Dutch theologian, has described the Holy Spirit as interpreter and comforter. This chapter explores Noordmans' critical anthropology by showing how the Spirit's interpretation of the cross of Christ to comfort mankind critically challenges the positive humanistic anthropology in our society today. Sin cannot be scientifically explained, but expresses mankind's relationship to God. Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, and Kohlbrugge contribute to the discussion.
First, this article gives a biblical theological account of the use of the term 'temptation' through out the Bible and relates it to the temptation narrative in Luke. It proposes to show that there is a trinitarian structure in the temptation narrative in Luke. It is argued that the temptation narrative is primarily concerned with the person and work of Christ from a Christological perspective, while it can be related to the believer only from a secondary Pneumatological perspective.Second, this article will focus on the way the temptation narrative has been interpreted by Oepke Noordmans, Fyodor Dostoyevski, and in the South African context by President Thabo Mbeki in his Nelson Mandela Memorial Lecture. Noordmans, the theologian, emphasizes the Christo logical aspects of the temptation narrative, while Dostoyevski explores the Pneumatological aspects by looking at humankind in its concrete socio-political and religious situation. President Thabo Mbeki refers to the temptation narrative from an anthropological perspective to indicate how a citizen must live responsibly in South Africa.