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Abstract

Herder’s comments on government and his political ideas are dispersed throughout his copious published works, and he does not put forward a systematic political philosophy. This chapter uses the noticeable parallels between the development of religions and nation-states to discuss how sympathy and his notion of “feeling oneself into the other” allowed Herder to judge nations and past rulers. With an emphasis on Herder’s journal Adrastea, his approach to weighing historical events is shown to be similar to his approaches to describe the development of religions, especially Christianity. Herder favours a form of self-governing world citizenship, a political community that he claimed already existed, but refuses to describe in detail. The goodness or failure of any government depends on its ability to advance the purpose of all of humanity and the individual citizen simultaneously. The form of government is thus determined by the specific geographic, climatic, and historical situation and the development of its people, and hence may be different from nation to nation.

In: Herder on Empathy and Sympathy
In: Grazer Philosophische Studien
The English-German collection Herder on Empathy and Sympathy: Einfühlung und Sympathie im Denken Herders considers the meaning and role of the concepts of empathy and sympathy in Herder’s thought. Herder invokes sympathy in a number of disciplinary domains ranging from metaphysics, biology, anthropology, epistemology, psychology, morality, politics, history, aesthetics to homiletics. While Herder is shown as belonging to a long line of thinkers who view sympathy as a metaphysical principle contributing to the interconnectedness of all parts of nature, he also offers new insights about intra-/inter-species sympathetic communication and distinctively human varieties of sympathy for which he reserves the term “sich einfühlen”. Acknowledging the limits of the natural capacity for “sich einfühlen”, Herder nonetheless calls for its reflective cultivation in various domains.
In: Herder on Empathy and Sympathy
In: Herder on Empathy and Sympathy
Im Alltag wie auch in der Wissenschaft erlangen wir einen Großteil unseres Wissens durch die Worte anderer. Doch – geblendet vom Individualismus des ›Do-ityourself‹-Verfahrens in der Erkenntnistheorie – scheinen in der europäischen Philosophietradition Zeugnisse in Wort, Schrift und Bild als Voraussetzungen des Wissenserwerbs kaum eine Rolle gespielt zu haben. Erst in neuerer Zeit findet die Idee einer sozialen Epistemologie eine angemessene Beachtung. Doch das Bild von der zeugnisvergessenen Philosophietradition trügt. Diese Anthologie unternimmt daher erstmals eine Spurensuche zur philosophischen Thematisierung von Zeugenschaft seit der Neuzeit und bezieht dabei auch zeitgenössische Autoren mit ein. Anhand konkreter Quellen wird gezeigt, dass es eine reichhaltige Geschichte der philosophischen Reflexion von Zeugenschaft gibt, deren zentrale Positionen erschlossen werden. Dabei stellt sich eine grundlegende Mehrdeutigkeit des Phänomens der Zeugenschaft heraus: In den vielfältigen Konstellationen des Glaubenszeugnisses, des Gerichtszeugnisses, der Zeitzeugenschaft und des Opferzeugnisses verschlingen sich jeweils Ethik und Episteme, Sozialphilosophie und Erkenntnistheorie miteinander. Zeugenschaft, so zeigt sich, ist nicht auf das epistemologische Problem des Wissens durch die Worte anderer zu reduzieren.
In: Freie Subjekte in der Welt der Physik

Soil conservation is one of the major challenges for agriculture in the 21st century. For this reason, non-inversion tillage systems including subsidiary crops have become popular over the last three decades in Europe. However, the adoption of new agricultural practices may change the diversity and abundance of certain pests and diseases. For example, plant-parasitic nematodes that are major threats towards cultivated plants may be promoted if good hosts, such as certain subsidiary crops and weeds, occur more frequently. The indigenous plant-parasitic nematode fauna under organic farming systems is already adapted to diverse crop rotations and usually dominated by nematodes with broad host ranges. These may be further enhanced in organic farming systems if non-inversion tillage is introduced, which generally increases the abundance and biomass of certain weeds. We evaluated the early effects of non-inversion tillage and subsidiary crops in an organic wheat-potato rotation on plant-parasitic nematodes in two field experiments in two successive years. The total densities of plant-parasitic nematodes increased from an initial 1260 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 at the start of the experiment to 1850 and 1700 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 after wheat under non-inversion and conventional tillage, respectively. Plant-parasitic nematode densities then decreased on average to 1100 and 560 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 after subsidiary crops and potatoes, respectively. Parasitic nematode densities tended to be higher under non-inversion than conventional tillage, except where oilseed radish and black oats had been used as cover crops. For the latter, no differences between tillage treatments occurred. In the second experiment, about 1700 free-living nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 were found under conventional tillage without mulch while under reduced tillage with mulch their numbers were significantly higher at 3100 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1. We conclude that an appropriate choice of subsidiary crops can be an important management factor for the long term sustainability of non-inversion tillage systems.

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In: Nematology
In: Andersheit um 1800