GRAHAM S. HARDY and JOHN E. RANDALL

A small brightly spotted pufferfish, distributed from the northern Red Sea through the Gulf of Aden at least to Zanzibar, is described as Torquigener flavimaculosus n.sp. Previously recorded from the Red Sea as Amblyrhynchotes hypselogenion (not of Bleeker), it differs from that species in having a larger eye diameter, longer caudal peduncle, more dense ventral spination, and a greater number of spines on the anterior margin of the branchial opening. Osteological examination supports inclusion of the new species in Torquigener Whitley. The moderately well-developed prootic medial prongs alone distinguish it from all other Torquigener species, in which this character is less clearly (or not at all) observed.

Gordon Graham, Iain Stevenson and John Edmondson

Series:

John Emerton

Edited by Graham Davies and Robert Patterson Gordon

John Emerton was Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge University from 1968 to 1995 and is a former Editor of Vetus Testamentum and its Supplements (1975-97). His work is characterised by profound learning and rigorous argument. He published detailed articles on a wide range of subjects, not only on the Hebrew language but also on Biblical texts, Semitic philology and epigraphy, Pentateuchal criticism and other central issues in Biblical scholarship, and biographical essays on some modern scholars. The forty-eight essays in this volume have been selected to provide both an overview of Emerton’s influential work in all these fields and easier access to some items which are no longer readily available.

Bruce Hemmer, John Graham, Paula Garb and Marlett Phillips

Abstract

A new theory of how nations negotiate is described wherein peoples negotiate, not just political leaders, and the negotiations of the latter are affected by the former. We draw on theories and concepts from Track Two diplomacy, citizen peacebuilding, civic democratization, and social movements to develop an integrated theory of how peoples negotiate. That is, we demonstrate how citizen peacebuilders create the democratic, social, cultural and human capital necessary to effectively engage national level politics by first building peace and democracy at the grassroots and in local politics. Further, we describe the development of a "peacebuilding organism" involving specialized citizen peacebuilding organizations that coordinate to produce mutually reinforcing growth toward peace and democracy at all levels of society. This gives peace a deep-rooted momentum that transforms political resistance. This theory is applied to explain peace movement development in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We close by considering implications of this theory for optimizing international assistance.