Author: John Greco

A promising idea in the recent literature is that the concept of knowledge serves to govern the flow of actionable information within a community of information sharers. In this connection, several authors have argued that knowledge is the “norm of assertion,” while others have explored the distinctive role of testimony in the transmission of knowledge. This paper investigates the role of “common knowledge” in such a community, and compares it to Wittgenstein’s notion of “hinge propositions” in On Certainty. Wittgenstein’s thinking is evaluated in this context, and an account of common knowledge along Wittgensteinian lines is considered. I do not here endorse the account of common knowledge that results. Rather, I consider some of the advantages and disadvantages of what looks to be a promising approach.

In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
Author: John Greco

Abstract

Sosa's work on epistemic circularity has significance beyond his own brand of virtue epistemology, with its characteristic distinction between animal and reflective knowledge. On the contrary, it demonstrates the necessity of embracing foundationalism and externalism in epistemology, while at the same time answering various charges (some perennial) against epistemology in general. This paper distinguishes six kinds of epistemic circularity that are discussed in Sosa's work: two virtuous, two vicious, and two benign. This framework is used to reconstruct Sosa's responses to various problems involving charges of epistemic circularity. In particular, we look at Sosa's response to e Problem of the Criterion.

In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
Author: John Greco

Epistemic Angst: Radical Skepticism and the Groundlessness of our Believing. By Duncan Pritchard. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2016. Pp. xv + 239. isbn 978-0-691-16723-7.

In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
In: Hinge Epistemology
In: Erkenntnistheorie – Wie und wozu?

During its life cycle Carcinus maenas (Decapoda, Portunidae) goes through several phases of the moulting process (ecdysis) which allow it to grow despite having a rigid, non-living outer surface. As an individual approaches ecdysis, the exoskeletal calcium is solubilized (decalcification) from the shell and transferred through the integumentary epithelium to the blood, where much of it is transported to cells, tissues and organs of temporary storage where it is later mobilized for deposition into the new exoskeleton. We hypothesised that the decalcification process caused deterioration of the features and structures (e.g. tubercles and setae) characterizing the crab carapace, but that this can be reversed by moulting. We also tested whether wear and tear caused by abiotic and biotic influences between moults might also cause surface deterioration. Any such deterioration would be detrimental to C. maenas. For example, compromise of the function of these structures could influence the settlement rate of epibionts on the crab surface as well as interfering with sensory and regulatory physiology. In this study, animals characterized as intermoult, premoult and postmoult crabs, were selected and their carapace surfaces analysed to evaluate the relationship between deterioration and moulting stage. Data showed that the outer surfaces of Carcinus maenas were subject to deterioration of their fine microtopographies throughout their life, probably influencing epibiotic settlement. Furthermore, the moulting process, already recognized as crucial for growth and removal of fouling epibionts, also proved to be necessary for the periodic restoration of surface microtopography. These findings, besides providing new insights into details of the crab life cycle, indicate a likely antifouling property for carapace microtopography in C. maenas.During its life cycle Carcinus maenas (Decapoda, Portunidae) goes through several phases of the moulting process (ecdysis) which allow it to grow despite having a rigid, non-living outer surface. As an individual approaches ecdysis, the exoskeletal calcium is solubilized (decalcification) from the shell and transferred through the integumentary epithelium to the blood, where much of it is transported to cells, tissues and organs of temporary storage where it is later mobilized for deposition into the new exoskeleton. We hypothesised that the decalcification process caused deterioration of the features and structures (e.g. tubercles and setae) characterizing the crab carapace, but that this can be reversed by moulting. We also tested whether wear and tear caused by abiotic and biotic influences between moults might also cause surface deterioration. Any such deterioration would be detrimental to C. maenas. For example, compromise of the function of these structures could influence the settlement rate of epibionts on the crab surface as well as interfering with sensory and regulatory physiology. In this study, animals characterized as intermoult, premoult and postmoult crabs, were selected and their carapace surfaces analysed to evaluate the relationship between deterioration and moulting stage. Data showed that the outer surfaces of Carcinus maenas were subject to deterioration of their fine microtopographies throughout their life, probably influencing epibiotic settlement. Furthermore, the moulting process, already recognized as crucial for growth and removal of fouling epibionts, also proved to be necessary for the periodic restoration of surface microtopography. These findings, besides providing new insights into details of the crab life cycle, indicate a likely antifouling property for carapace microtopography in C. maenas.

In: Contributions to Zoology