The sharifs of Mecca in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries minted coins that formed the basis of the local monetary system. The Meccan dirham, debased during this period until it was reduced to a copper coin, was an expression of the monetary autonomy of the sharifs and a means of profit for the monetary authorities.

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
In: Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies